Kapnist Vasily( poet and distinguished playwright)
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Biography Kapnist Vasily
Born in 1757, Mr.. the estate Obukhovka Mirgorodskogo district, Poltava province. Fifteen years arrived in St. Petersburg and enrolled a corporal in the regiment Izmaloyvsky; diligently attended the regimental school, is under the auspices of an enlightened A. Bibikova - hunter to science and particularly to Prosody ". Here he became close to N.A. Lvov. In 1772, Mr.. Kapnist joined Transfiguration Regiment, where three years later received the first officer's rank and became friends with Derzhavin. During the stay in the capital Kapnist tried hard to fill up their education at home studying ancient and Western European languages and the classics, as well as becoming familiar with the works of Lomonosov, Cantemir, Sumarokov. At the same time he first entered the path of transferable Prosody. In 1782, Mr.. He was elected leader of the nobility Mirgorodskogo county, but in the same year, under the mediation of Lviv, gained a place at the main post office. In 1785, Mr.. He was elected to the Kievan nobility marshal, and after 2 years, was appointed chief warden of the Kiev silk factory. In 1799, Mr.. Kapnist was counted among the theatrical Directorate superintendence Russian troupe. He did much to revive the Russian scene, prompting Moscow-known artists - Shusherina, Sakharov, Ponomareva. In 1802. Kapnist was approved by the judge of the 1 st Department of General Court of Poltava, and from 1812 to 1818, Mr.. including by the Ministry of Education. Traveling in 1819, Mr.. on the Crimean peninsula, he drew attention to the destruction of local antiquities and the destruction of ancient monuments and made that presentation to Prince Golitsyn, which had the effect of a business trip in Tauris academician Keller and architect Pascal. In 1822, Mr.. Kapnist was elected marshal of the nobility of Poltava province, and Oct. 28 next year, died in his glorified Obukhovka.
Kapnist was married to Alexandra Alexeevna Dyakova, sister of the wife and the wife of Lviv Derzhavina. By the mug of the three writers were joined by more Hemnitser, Bogdanovich and Olenin. The first piece Kapnist - an ode to the French, about the peace with Turkey (1775). Later, he himself defined it as: "stupidly ode, written writer at the 17 th year of his age, however, he neither himself nor a fool to his work in the apology does not make". The attention of the reading public Kapnist drew our first published in the June book "St. Petersburg Messenger (1780)," a satire of the first ", . subsequently reprinted in the "Assembly Lovers Russia Letters" (Part V), . under the title "The satire first and last",
. Kapnist expressed here sharp judgments and sarcastic remarks about some literary figures, whom he means pseudonyms, transparent enough. Satire caused controversy: the anonymous author published in the same St. Petersburg Gazette: "Letter", which calls Kapnist stupid and arrogant abuser and quotes from Boileau, Fonvizin and Sumarokova as evidence of plagiarism. In 1783, Mr.. young writer wrote a solemn "Ode on slavery, which, however, decided to publish only in 1806. In this work Kapnist a southern Russian patriot, remembers the old freedom of Little Russia and mourns imposed shackles of slavery to their homeland. The reason to write this ode served as a decree of Catherine II on the attachment of peasants to the landed estates in Kiev, Chernigov and Novgorod-Seversky Viceroyalty. In 1786, Mr.. new decree of Catherine, commanding asylum-called "loyalist", instead of the old "slave", prompted Kapnist write "Ode to the extermination in Russia the title of a slave". Prior to 1796, Mr.. name Kapnist occurs, then in many periodical publications - "New monthly essays," Moscow Journal "," Aonidah "Karamzin. His works have been translated as well as the original and enjoyed great popularity in public, and among the best literary circles of the time. Comic ode Kapnist: "A singer Raphael Felitsa" was delivered Derzhavin still in manuscript, entitled "The report Life-author of Ekaterinoslav music chimneysweeper Basil Kapnist". Purpose of the ode was pointed Derzhavin blunders in his poem "Image Felitsa". Derzhavin offended and answered a sharp letter, which, incidentally, wrote: "If such verses to give you the offspring, in fact proslyvesh Parnassian chimney sweep, who wanted to clean the other verse, and the impurity had been sullied by its". Friendly relations between the poets, however, without violating. In 1796, Mr.. Kapnist issued the first meeting of his poems with the original couplet on the title:
Kapnist I have read and my heart broken,
Why read studied.
Two years later appears on the stage of the main literary work Kapnist - comedy "sneak". This comedy has taken a prominent place in the national repertoire and to the appearance on the stage "Woe from Wit" and "Inspector" with, in their accusatory trends have much in common with "Yabed, enjoyed outstanding success. "Sneak" is no different art techniques of animation and special interest that, the purpose behind it - expose of bribery, graft and denunciations - prevails over the content and encourage the author to fall sometimes into caricature and exaggeration. His protagonists - have failed, Krivosudov, Hvatayko and others - a caricature, but Kapnist accurately hit the sore spot of his society and this has caused in the bureaucratic world uproar. The play allowed the Emperor Paul to the statement, was soon withdrawn from the repertoire, and even when Alexander I did not immediately acquired the rights of citizenship. Bantysh-Kamensky transmits the next episode, who was himself a witness. When in 3 steps Hvatayko sings: "Take it, there is no great science; take it, that only you can take. At what hung our hands, . if not at, . order to take? "- the audience began to applaud, . many, . please contact one of the officials present at the theater, . loudly called his name and cried out: "it's you it's you!" The popularity of "denunciations" in the beginning of this century was so great, . some expressions comedy appealed to the sayings,
. Subsequent translations and imitative drama Kapnist not matter, one of them: "Stanorev or imaginary infidelity," the author has devoted the following epigram:
. No one could learn from the whole orchestra,
. Who Stanoreve dared to disgrace Moliere;
. But overall, and agree to the whistle
. Everyone has shown that it - Kapnist
From the lyrical poems Kapnist, which at one time enjoyed considerable success, the best: "In memory of birch bark and Obukhovka", where the author reveals a lot of true feelings and a wealth of colors. Kapnist tried, despite his love for the classics, to replace the hexameter, in the translation of Greek and Roman authors, the size of demotic Russian songs. This attempt was unsuccessful and did not find myself imitators. Kapnist edition published in 1849. Smirdin. B. Glinsky.