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Ring Alex V.

( Famous People's Poet)

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Biography Ring Alex V.
Born October 3, 1809, a prosperous middle class family in the city of Voronezh. His father was a cattle dealer who traded in cattle - an intelligent, energetic, resourceful. Koltsov's mother was good-natured woman, but quite uneducated, even illiterate. Koltsov's childhood took place in a harsh patriarchal merchant family, the father was the sole ruler of the house and all kept in strict obedience. Only his mother knew how to get along with him and, apparently, the boy has more beneficial. Koltsov was left to himself. In the family he had no peers: one sister was much older than him, and his brother and other sisters - much younger. When he turned 9 years old, he began to teach literacy is one of the Voronezh seminarians. Koltsov studied diligently and successfully, bypassing Parish, . He just entered the first class district school (1818), . but stayed in school long: a year and 4 months his father took him home, . Finding information, . son received, . sufficient for the life, . to which he cooks it - trade cattle,
. Russian spelling is left for Koltsov inaccessible forever. The school, however, brought him the favor that he fell in love with reading. The first book they read, were cheap popular editions, various tales about Bowa, about Eruslan Lazarevic and t. n. He bought them with the money given back to him for treats and toys. He then moved on to novels, which are fetched from his friend, Vargina, also the son of a merchant. Koltsov particularly liked "A Thousand and One Nights" and "Cadmus and Harmony" Kheraskov. In 1824 Vargin died, leaving a friend in the library of his heritage - a total of 70 volumes. On leaving school, Koltsov, I suppose, began helping his father in his trade affairs and was the first time became better acquainted with the countryside and the Don steppe. This acquaintance once had a strong influence on him, he opened the enchanting world of sounds and colors, and he absorbed them into himself, then to transmit their own, native to this world, thoughts and feelings. In 1825, a strong impression made on him accidentally fallen into his poems I.I. Dmitriev especially liked his "Ermak". He was 16 years old when he wrote his first poem, "Three visions". Shortly thereafter, he met with the Voronezh booksellers Kashkin. Direct, intelligent and honest, Kashkin enjoyed the love of Voronezh youth and his bookshop was for her a kind of club. He was interested in Russian literature, read a lot and it seems that he wrote poetry. There is reason to think him a ring showed his first experiments. Within 5 years Koltsov used donated his library, getting acquainted with the works of Zhukovsky, Delvig, Kozlova, Pushkin. Koltsov Poems 1826 - 1827 period, with rare exceptions, is a weak imitation of these samples. In the late 20's rings made friends with Andrew Porfirievich Srebryanskaya, a disciple of Voronezh seminary student subsequently Medico-Surgical Academy. Srebryanskaya himself a poet, his poems among seminarians enjoy very high reputation. One of his plays is not forgotten even today: it is well-known student song "Quick as a wave, the days of our lives". In his letters to Belinsky ring is not just remembered with gratitude of his friend, to whom he owed a very valuable guidance, especially on the subject of verse techniques, as well as more rigorous selection of reading. On Relations Koltsov to Srebryanskaya presents and a poem dedicated to him ( "A.P. Srebryanskaya, 1829). In the late 20's rings love who lived in their house serf girl Dunyasha, bought by his father at one of the neighboring landowners. My father went cool: one of the absences Koltsov Duniasha was sold to the Don, where he soon married. This was a major blow to Koltsov's, traces of which remain forever in his poetry. In 1829, Koltsov met with the professor of philosophy and physics and mathematics in Voronezh Seminar Velyaminov on withdrawal De Pul - a man deeply interested in literature. In the same year, through Voronezh passed some Sukhachev, who considered himself a writer. Koltsov met him and gave him a book of his poems. Sukhachev took her with him to Moscow, and in 1830 some of Koltsov's poems published under his name. Fluke soon brought Koltsov with NV. Stankevich. According YA.M. Neverov, the father Stankevich, landlord Voronezh province, was a distillery, where local merchants they brought their cattle herds to feed Bard. Young Stankevich had no relations with these people. One day, going to bed, he could not dozvatsya his valet. The valet told in his own defense, . that newly arrived cattle dealer ring for dinner read to them such songs, . that they heard and could not keep up with him, he brought the few remaining in his memory verses, . and Stankevich, who made a strong impression,
. He invited Koltsov to ourselves to learn from him where he got such beautiful poetry. At the request of Stankevich, Koltsov gave him all his poems. One Stankevich placed in the "Literary Gazette" (1831), with a letter recommending that readers of the native poet, who never studied, and busy commercial affairs on behalf of his father, wrote part of a road at night, sitting on horseback ". In May 1831 Koltsov the first time, went to Moscow for commercial and contentious matters of his father and met there with the circle of Stankevich, including - Belinsky. In Moscow "Pages Ring posted in 1831, a number of poems. In 1835 the money raised by members of the circle of Stankevich, was published the first book "Poems by Alexei Koltsov" - a total of 18 pieces, selected from Stankevich, "a pretty hefty Notebook. There came such gems as "Do not you get excited, rye," "Meditation farmer," "Peasant junket" and other. Belinsky had met this book sympathetically, acknowledging in Koltsovo small talent, but true ". Koltsov, however, continue to write only in snatches, giving their strength, for the most part, shopping for Father. Second trip Koltsov in Moscow and St. Petersburg in 1836 refers to. In Moscow, he met F.N. Glinka Shevyrev, in St. Petersburg - with Prince Viazemsky, with Prince Odoyevsky, Zhukovsky, Pletnev, Krajewski, Panayev and other. Everywhere he was received very kindly, some of them - frankly, others - yielding to him as a poet and cattle dealer, a poet-the petty bourgeoisie. Koltsov well understood as those who belonged to him, he generally knew how to subtly and carefully observe. Pushkin Koltsov met in 1836. They met, according to п?.п?. Yudin, in Pushkin's apartment, where Koltsov was twice invited. Before Pushkin Koltsov awe. Turgenev tells how at a party at Pletnev Koltsov did not agree to read his latest Duma. "What was that I began to read, sir, - he said - then Alexander just came out, and I began to read!" Excuse me, sir! " N.A. Field speaks about Koltsovo as "pure, good soul," "with him, he warmed himself, as if the fireplace". Prince Vyazemsky characterizes him as "a child of nature, modest, simple-hearted". Belinsky was just delighted with Koltsov. As well treated him and Zhukovsky, and Krajewski, and Prince Odoevsky. Last, but together with them and Vyazemskij, often supported him in his personal - or rather his father's affairs, due to them not just ended successfully in such litigations, which his father, having no ties, certainly would have lost. This, no doubt, explains in part why his father treated him and then to his literary pursuits rather friendly. Lyrics Koltsov readily printed in the capital's best magazines ( "Contemporary", "Moscow Observer). At home his fame increased further after Zhukovsky, accompanying Tsarevich in his journey across Russia, visited Voronezh (July 1837). Everyone saw how Zhukovsky "walking on foot and in the carriage with the poet-Prasolov". Koltsov, who accompanied him during sightseeing. Koltsov at that time felt cramped in a family environment, and its strongly attracted to people of thought and culture, but it was too tightly bound with all their past and materially and spiritually, and its formation still remains superficial. In Voronezh, few people understood his state of mind, especially after 1838, when he died Srebryanskaya. Since Kashkin he soon parted. In 1838, Koltsov again went first to Moscow, then to St. Petersburg. During this visit, he grew especially close and Belinsky, who became the only person close to him. He confided Belinsky all its sorrows and joys, made him a judge of all his new works, which are immediately forwarded to him. In 1838, Koltsov wrote quite a lot. This was aided by the cultural environment and the interests of the metropolitan society in which he had moved, he explains why it is so productive of its activities for the year (see. his letter to Belinsky on August 16, 1840). After this trip, Koltsov life in Voronezh is even more lonely, homely atmosphere even more inconvenienced by it. With friends he was increasingly at odds. Koltsov dreamed about the role of teacher, leader, wanted to be a guide of those high thoughts and ideas that he encountered in mental facilities in Russia; familiar mocking attitude to such attempts, saw it as a simple imitator. "Living at home, in the circle of merchants," he writes Belinsky, "I strongly now I can not, in other circles, too ... Very bleak future ahead of me. I think I will perform a one in the whole of accuracy: the crow ... And, by God, I'm awfully similar to it, can only say: it is to pavam not hit, but from the crows left behind. Most of this did not suit me ". Friends called Koltsov in St. Petersburg, offered him or myself to open the book trade, or to become office manager Krajewski. Ring is not followed this advice. He knew how little of the ideal in every trade, even though the book, and quite reasonably argued his friends that he did not survive the competition from other booksellers, if he would conduct their affairs differently, not in MERCHANT. In September 1840 Koltsov again had to stay in the capitals for father. This was his last trip. Meetings with Belinsky, IN. Botkin, a little revived him, his spirit was lifted. At this time Koltsov hesitated to return home and on the way back from St. Petersburg to Moscow was delayed a little longer. Too disgusting thought he again found himself in the pool of household furniture. In February 1841 Koltsov nevertheless decided to return home. Money for the journey he was not - his father did not want his return and refused to send, had to borrow a friend. At home, he again went with his head in the affairs of his father, but relations between them became more and more deteriorated. There were very heavy scenes, acting on Koltsov depressing. Soon Koltsov parted with his beloved younger sister, Anisya, in which he had seen only in the family close to him soul. Tragedy of everyday life, heavy and hopeless, breathes in his letters to Belinsky at this time. Here he finished some new construction will result in the order of some father's affairs and certainly will come to St. Petersburg - his father had promised to give him money. But the case dragged on, Koltsov entangled in them, health was too much port - and the faded hope. At only one moment and then very briefly, smiled, was his good fortune: he was passionately fond Barbarian Grigorievna Lebedev, and this aroused in him faith in a better future, but for various reasons they had to go away soon. Disease Koltsov - consumption - has become a rapidly. My father did not give money for treatment. Dr. IA. Malyshev took in the fate of Koltsov active part and, as he could, and maintained its strength. In the next room preparing for the wedding of her sister, were held boisterous hen parties, and the ring was lying seriously ill, deserted, and one only a mother so old nurse caring for him. Koltsov, died Oct. 29, 1842. Poetry Koltsov long, since the days Belinsky, determine how deeply the people's, rather - even a peasant. It dominated the same content, the same motives, the same form as in the oral folk lyric. Sadness, longing for the dear, complaints about the fate, grief, failure, family life, love calls, valiant prowess - so simple, true folk stories, which usually sings Koltsov. He has more variations, experiences transferred deeper, subtler, more passionate outbursts, colors intensified, condensed, but the essence still remains the same, the difference as if only a quantitative rather than qualitative. Feels it is clear that in his poetry found its total direct and accurate expression of nameless people's collective creative genius. Koltsov looks at everything around the same wide-open eyes naive, . What looked poets creators of folk songs, . remaining unknown precisely because, , . all experienced, . as the people and at the same time, . and in unison with,
. Special feeling of fullness, . which dissolves the individual "I", . power of the original harmony, . addition syncretic unity, . which God, . natural surroundings and individual mutually to end penetrate each other, . constitute something single whole, . - That is characteristic of this simple, . not yet differentiated the soul of the poet of the people, it is also the case for Koltsov,
. If we exclude from his poetry are imitative poems, . where the motives are borrowed, as it were accidentally caught in a hurry and completely alien to the spirit of Zhukovsky, . Delvig and Dmitriev, . moreover "Duma", . written under the influence of Stankevich, . especially Belinsky, . vain enlightens him on the expense "of the subject, . object and the Absolute ", . it amazes us is an extraordinary objectivity, . complete lack of personal element,
. As if his lyrics are not the result of his personal experiences, and he only wanted to tell you how to do every peasant boy or girl loves, happy, sad, complaining about the fate or languishing in a narrow field once embodied life. For instance, despair of the young man narrowed betrayal: "fall of sadness and longing for heavy grief little head; tormented soul flour-death, out of body soul asks". Or love, transforming his life: "together with a nice winter in the summer it seems, alas - not with grief, the night - a clear day, but without it there is no joy in the May morning, and dawn-evening, and oak - green - silk brocade". Loved his artistic techniques - fusion of two concepts or images into one ( "awe-fire", "love-longing," "sadness and anguish", "love-light", "love-soul and r. etc.), striking contrasts (like: "with grief in a feast to be with a cheerful face," "the sun shines - but in the autumn"). Everywhere and always visible nature is strong, passionate, experiences everything in a special, deeply, to oblivion. Still, drowning all the personal integrity of the original synthetic view of the world, and the songs are typical Koltsov. It is the most typical characteristic of Koltsov. And no matter how bright its colors, and no matter how great their abundance - in every play, they are new and different - the impression remains the same: a feeling, generally applicable to all and sundry, it experiences birth, not the individual, not personal. I yearn to remove deceived fellows, . turning in prayer to the red sun, . wide field, . violent winds; prichityvaet whether a young woman, . that she was forcibly given for the unloved, whether the old man complains to his old age, . young - its share of mediocre, tells whether that, . as dry, . like grass in the autumn, . zealous heart of the fire of love for the maiden, . - Word, . about who and whatever he sang Koltsov, . everywhere before us images of fusion, . nameless faces, they can only describe the general features, . in extreme cases identified by occupation or economic status - if it is necessary for the exposition of action - but not more, . not precisely, . no details,
. All the peasant way of life passes in front of us, in written literature Koltsov - the only singer of agricultural labor. He knows this way of life, all my soul feels the holiness of this work, sees and feels all its complexity, delves into his thoughts and feelings, but it always draws in the typical, form a cohesive. The other poet, it would be a sign of weakness of creative forces; a Kol'tsova can feel the great truth of great talent, who perceives the world as he perceives the people, the peasants. In comparison with the oral folk art from Koltsov much greater variety of moments, emotions seem to be an in-depth, yet each moment, each individual experience is a common characteristic of the type, not per person. Same-childishly naive syncretic unity of effect and in respect to the nature of Koltsov. All the drama of life of his heroes and heroines invariably come to her bosom, and people with all his thoughts turned first and most readily to it, its phenomena, as their friends - Assistant or hinder opponents. Clearly felt that this is not simple metaphors, not an artistic device, not a way of borrowing needed for the case of paints. Koltsov broadcasts here, and again in the popular, all the true closeness that exists between man and nature - the link is impossible due to between any sharp dividing line, and the more they oppose. In full alignment with the nature of peasant life unfolds. Not only in the sense that a farmer dependent on it, as from the sole of his nurse, and reluctant to build your life in obedience to its commands. Here the compatibility of a different kind, free and desirable, exactly two equal companions, animated by the same thoughts and ideas. Farmer, . it Sivka, . field, . he plowed, . sun, . it warms the earth, . clouds, . shed on the earth's bosom, . broad, . large tears - rain ", . bird, . flying over Niwa or singing under the window of the hut, . and even the dumb things: plow, . Harrow, . plow, . sickle - all members of the same family, . understand each other, they are all together doing complex and serious life,
. There is no lower and higher, mutual sympathy, unconsciousness, if I may say so, mutual postiganie binds them together. Why so naive and deeply touching true, . - And not just beautiful - seem such treatment, . as a young man to a nightingale, . that he flew into the forests of his country-soul girl chirped about his depression, . tell her, . without it it dries, . wither, . that the grass on the steppe before the fall,
. Or call for a wonderful field of: "Do not get excited you are ripe rye ears", he did not collect what is good, no reason to get rich now: scared eyes are clear, once "full of thoughts sweetheart, sepulchral sleep sleeping maiden". Or those wonderful folk pure parallels: "in bad weather, the wind howls, . howls - the head of rampant evil sadness torments; trusting, intimate conversations with the dark night, . clear sun, . Extensively steppe, . oblique-sickle, . blackened, . "spattered in boredom, sorrow tear maiden",
. All these creatures and things take a very active part in life, in labor farmer. We Koltsov, unless he is free from reflection, no other colors than those available from nature, from the earth, in the steppe or forest. None of them even when he was obviously distracted from peasant life, talks about himself personally, about your present moment, a purely subjective state. He, . example, . close to the middle-class environment, . it strongly attracted to another, . more cultural life, or something else: his terrible tragedy struck the death of Pushkin, . which he could appreciate, . sure, . not with the peasant point of view, . - In the creative result again the same images of people, . same objectivism, . complete distraction from his "I" ( "In bad weather, the wind howling howls", . "What great forest thoughtful"),
. Gleb Uspensky says Koltsov only in Russian literature singer of agricultural labor. This is very true: when he sings his original cause and the people's whole world view, he reaches the highest credibility and simplicity and at the same time, complete harmony - apart from nature and man, yet God. In the cherished thoughts Plowman chaste sanctity and seriousness, which is amplified and deepened with each variable in nature and in particular in the field. With trepidation and prayer, waiting for the rural people to "black cloud ponahmurilas, and expanded, and shed big tears - rain". Came this welcome rain - and with it three peasant peaceful thoughts. Prior to the first two farmer himself thought of, and performance depends on it as: "Bread to pour in bag, remove the cart from the village guzhom in time to leave," but as "a thoughtful third dumushka - God-pray to the Lord," - says the ring is not. And that's fine. Its a sin to express in words; here trepidation, here begins the participation of God. "A little light on the field all dispersed and went for a walk one behind another, a handful of full grain scatter, and let's plow the land plows, but the curve plow to plow". Bread is holy, he is God's guest, his works for the Lord sends people. He himself takes care of him through their own nature: "sees the sun - the harvest is over, and only if it is the cold went to Autumn". Why so "hot candle farmer before the icon of the Mother of God". God is also a participant in peasant labor, and he will head his party, all by itself penetrates. Thus ends the popular conception of the world - or rather attitude, so united in a common union of both God and nature, and man. This is the sanctity of religious feeling, not only in the "harvest", but in the "Song of the Plowman," in "Reflections farmer, who knows what" evil and misfortune in the ground rye bread-winner of the peasant throw, and then God is a monster, Mikola a hand to collect bread from field ". It is an indication in the "Peasants 'feast'. Koltsov was trying to clarify this sense of a syncretic unity of God, the cosmos and the human "I" in his famous "Thoughts". In its spiritual ranks, he was not able to abstract philosophical thinking. Not surprisingly, it is worth it just to speak the language of Stankevich and Belinsky, as immediately extinguished the fire of his poetry, silent power quivering in his soul folk elements. The harmony, which he always felt he could express only in images taken from life, the natural environment, rather than ethereal, frozen characters. Yet his "Thoughts" are typical, with the light of his truly poetic works are also made a very convincing. In them the same idea, which he constantly repeats: about animate the whole of nature, embodies the spirit of the Divine. Expresses the conviction if he is trapped in them on the fly or in terms of Schellingism completely alien to his spiritual way of rationalist notions of abstract Hegelianism, . Whether it is upgrading a little idea of the Christian Trinity, . more customary, . and therefore more comprehensible to him, . and through it, trying to clarify his vague thoughts, . - Are everywhere remains the same: life in everything and everywhere, . and it is in God,
. "In the play of life in the kingdom of God's will, not impotent death, there is a soulless life!" - He says in his Duma: "God's world". In the "kingdom of thought", he lists these modulations of life. God's Spirit, God's idea of living in all: "and in the ashes, and fire, in flames, in the peals of thunder in the hidden darkness of a fathomless depth" ... and even in the silent stillness of the cemetery, "in a deep sleep real stone," and "the breath of grass silent". Everywhere she was alone, this "queen of existence". "Father of light - an eternity, the Son of eternity - force, the spirit of force - there is life, life boils world. Everywhere Triune which called all to life "- as he interprets the three hypostasis of Christianity. And no matter how abstract these ideas, . in comparison with his songs seem completely lifeless, . - There is still affected by traces of the whole, . completed a deep religious feeling, . worldview, . which is so beautiful and so directly reflected in its true folk art,
. From the words of Belinsky Koltsov knew only that he himself was close, that is well suited to his own worldview. This does not exhaust the value of "Doom" Koltsov. They reflected another side of his mental activity, less valuable, in a sense, even harmful: he himself is, in any case, has brought little good. This - the same cult of reason, the realm of thought, which was bound to act in a way in corrupting the integrity of his attitude and lead to eternal damnation on those who do not and can not be a clear consciousness satisfying answer. These issues have been more painful for Koltsov, that he knew, many times experienced in moments of creative ecstasy, which overshadows the joy of the soul with a sense of harmony and synthesis, precludes any kind of global problems. Deep sorrow and dismay that such poems are permeated with it, as "grave", "Question", especially "The Prayer". This - the very same thoughts, for whom and Belinsky recognized certain value precisely in view of the seriousness of their questions honestly. Mind is unable to illuminate the darkness ahead of us the grave, the man replied that he would replace it "a profound sense of cold heart, what will life be like without the spirit of the heart". Sinful it matters: from them to complete denial of one step. Because such a plea of desperation last verse reads "Prayer:" Forgive me, O Savior! Tear my sinful evening prayers: she shines in the darkness of love for you ". A ring in these cases, seeking refuge in religion. "Before the way of the Savior" (so called one of his "thoughts"), he intentionally puts out the candle and closes a wise book, he should replace her faith: "it a rest and quiet". "The cross - my grave, on the cross - my love" - so ends yet another disturbing poem: "The last fight". In these frequent fluctuations between doubt and questions-answers-solutions in the direction of simple-hearted faith traces of decomposition of the original harmony. Poet of the people, the peasants, . knew and showed much of his work a sense of completeness, . this wholeness for certain unity of God, . Nature and Man, . Koltsov still acutely raises and the issues, . which are conceivable only in a very different, . opposite emotional way,
. In this sense, "Dumas' most strongly affected by its domestic relationship with the Russian literature of the second half of last century, with its history of flour disharmony of the spirit. - Bibliography. I. Editions: First collected works (published in Moscow in 1835), second, with an introduction by Belinsky and the application of Article Srebryanskaya: "Thoughts on Music", released H. Nekrasov and H. Prokopovych (St. Petersburg, 1846). This edition from 1856 until 1889 reprinted 10 times. The first and most complete edition of the critically tested (A. Marx, St. Petersburg., 1892) were edited by AI. Vvedensky; next, even more complete with the inclusion of letters Koltsov - edition of the journal "North" under the editorship of AI. Liashenko, St. Petersburg., 1893. Publication of the Academy of Sciences, edited by AI. Liashenko (St. Petersburg, 1909) - the most complete. - Biographical information: YA.M. Neverov, "Poet Prasol Ring" ( "Son of the Fatherland", 1836, Volume 176), VG. Belinsky, "On the life and writings of Koltsov" (Annex 2 to the second edition of the works Koltsov) A. Yudin, "The poet Koltsov, and his poems" ( "Experiments in the works of the studio Kharkov University, 1846, Volume I); VI. Askochensky, "My memories of Koltsovo" ( "Russian Invalid" in 1854, "244," Kiev Provincial Gazette "1854," 41, "Historical Journal, 1882, Volume VII); MN. Katkov, "A few extra words to the characterization of Koltsov (Russian Messenger, 1856, Volume VI, November); I.I. Pan, "Literary Reminiscences" (St. Petersburg, 1888); AN. Pypin, "Belinsky, his life and correspondence" (St. Petersburg, 1908); PV. Annenkov, "Memoirs" (St. Petersburg, 1881, Volume III); AV. Nikitenko, "Notes and Diary" (St. Petersburg, 1904, I); P. Malykhin, Ring and his unpublished poem "(" Fatherland Notes, 1867, Volume 170, February); M. De-Pule, Alexey V. Koltsov in his everyday life and literary matters and in a family environment "(St. Petersburg, 1878). - III. Criticism and bibliography: VG. Belinsky, "On the life and writings of Koltsov (with 2 nd edition of the works Koltsov, St. Petersburg., 1846); In. Stoyunin, "The Ring" ( "Son of the Fatherland" in 1852, "3, 4 and 5), H. Chernyshevski, "Essays on the Gogol Period" (St. Petersburg, 1893); AN. Afanasyev, "Rings and Voronezh teachers" ( "Russian Speech", in 1861, "100); In. Ostrogorsky, "Russian writers as an educational and educational material" (St. Petersburg, 1885); GI. Assumption, "Peasant and peasant labor" (St. Petersburg, 1889); A. Volyn, "The struggle for idealism" (St. Petersburg, 1900); S. Eichenwald, "Silhouettes of Russian Writers" (M., 1908, II edition); In. Yarmershtedt, "The Philosophy of Stankevich and poetry Koltsov" ( "Problems of Philosophy and Psychology, 1893, Prince. 20, 1894, Prince. 22); N.A. Yanchuk, "Literary Notes" ( "Izv. Dep. Russian Language and Literature Academy of Sciences, 1907, Volume XII). On the issue of language Koltsov: In. Istomin, "The main motivation of poetry Koltsov (Warsaw, 1893, reprint of the" Russian Philological Bulletin "); IS. Krylov, "Language works Koltsov (" Philological Notes, 1902, Issue I). Effect of Koltsov on writers of the people - cm. number of articles AI. Yatsimirskiе?: "Writers-peasants" ( "Literary Journal", 1904). In the bibliography, apart from the usual sources, the special work of the chronicler Dmitry: "Ring in the Russian and foreign literature" ( "Bibliographical Notes", 1892, "9). A. Dolinin

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