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Meletii Smotritskii

( South Russian gifted scientist)

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Biography Meletii Smotritskii
son Kamenetz Gerasimos Smotritsky city clerk, who wrote the foreword and poems for Ostrog Bible 1581 g. and former rector of the College Cultural Heritage. Meletii was born about 1578, studied at the school and Ostrog Vilna Jesuit College, attended lectures at Leipzig and Wittenberg. In 1610, under the pseudonym of Theophilus Orfologa, published in Vilna warmly written polemic against the Uniates and latynyan: "Threnos, to jest Lamentjedynejsw. powszechnej apostolskiey wschodniey cerkwie ". "Frinos" was a huge success. Soon, however, begins to waver Meletios. By joining the Orthodox Brotherhood of Vilna, he at the same time maintains secret talks with the Uniates and dissent wants to end disputes, but 3 days before the dispute Orthodox clergy and Bratchikov refused to take part in it. In 1618 or 1619 g. Meletii haircut (until then known as Maxim) and began to lead a strictly ascetic life. At the burial of the Vilna Archimandrite Meletios Karpovich, who was elected in his place and had previously built Patriarch of Constantinople to the rank of archbishop of Polotsk, said the sermon (published. in Vilna, in 1620), representing one of the best examples of eloquence Yuzhnorussky. Between 1620 and 1623 years Meletii published in Polish a number of polemical treatises, which cleverly connects it with the traditional Orthodox political liberties of Lithuania and Poland. In November 1623, Mr.. was killed in Vitebsk Uniate Bishop Jehoshaphat Kuntsevich, prompting retaliation. It was believed that Melety danger, and that the fear he had made up his mind to accept the union, but before you went to the East, hoping to arrange a union of churches. But now it is proved (P. Golubev, "Metropolitan of Kiev Petro Mohyla and his associates, Kiev: 1883, Chapter. III), that the danger to Melety was very low in the east he went for another purpose. In the Orthodox brotherhoods, especially in the oldest, as Vilna and Lvov, the main role passed to the laity - Bratchikov; although Melety "from head to toe in gold were removed, but authorities did not give. Vain Meletii decided, with the restoration of the Patriarchs, to gain proper, in his opinion, the situation for the clergy and at the end of 1623, Mr.. went to Constantinople, with the blessing of Metropolitan of Kiev Job Boretsky. From Constantinople Meletii traveled to Palestine and the end of 1625, Mr.. returned with certificates, withering Stauropegic fraternities. Meletii in Kiev was taken very badly. Publication of letters provoked a storm: they were declared fraudulent, and Meletios, together with Boretsky, loudly called apostates. Metropolitan and Meletii pronounced anathema on latynyan and Uniates, but this did not help them. Vilna and Lvov fraternity sent to the Patriarch of Constantinople for an explanation of letters, and not stingy and gifts. The patriarch explained that the law stavropegic oldest fraternities not to be destroyed. Then Meletii not dare to go to Vilna. When Meletii begged for a place in the rich Dermanskom abbot of the monastery, the authorities have expressed their consent, but under the condition of his move to union. Meletii agreed and was joined, June 6, 1627 g, only asked to keep it a secret: he is a skillful politician hoping to win over as many. September 8, 1627, Mr.. Meletii made a cathedral in Kiev, which took up for the Orthodox catechism, but first explain the main points of disagreement with the Orthodox Catholics. Not to be found guilty of treason, he shall notify the Vilna Bratchikov about their dealings with the Uniates, who supposedly want to "Papieе╪ ostaviti". But the deception does not succeed: the people walking persistent rumors about his passing, and many dermanskie monks managed to leave his monastery. At the 6 th week of Lent 1628, Mr.. gathered in the cathedral Grodekov, which Meletios submitted his explanation of the differences of faiths, in his opinion is not important, so that only unfair prejudice prevents the union of Orthodox churches and puts people in difficult circumstances. Cathedral has found his views are not unfounded and decided to prepare public opinion for the connection of Churches. Upon returning to Derman, Meletios works a treatise, which he called "Apologia peregrinatiey do Kraiow wschodnych" (Lviv, 1628). He offers to restore the unity of the cathedral and the churches, . flatters with his countrymen, . scolding ignorant Greeks and deftly, . as if in passing, . points to the benefits, . who will receive from the domination of Rome and the nobility, . now humiliated, . and people, . which only utret their daily shed tears,
. A copy of his "Apology" Meletii sent to Peter's Tomb, and the other metropolitan Job Boretsky, and the latter asked, addressing publish a book. Tomb and Boretsky could not agree on this, . as Meletii went much further, . than they expected: they were willing to admit titular primacy of the pope and wanted reconciliation with the Catholics on the rights of equality, . and Meletii assumed complete subordination to and recognition of past errors and even heresies,
. But to speak openly against Melety they could not afford because they have been compromised by previous agreements with. Vain waited for a reply from them, Meletii sent a copy of the "Apology" to Sakovich, and in early August 1628, Mr.. appeared the first page of a book in Polish translation. Copies of them were in Kiev for persons gathered together for a cathedral, and led the Orthodox in the extreme bitterness. Meletii tried to defend his book, but had to admit the possibility of corrections and even pause the printing. Soon he saw how excited the people against him, and wrote a penitent letter to Metropolitan. He was forced to participate in the ceremonial anafematstvovanii his book, and it trampled underfoot and palil fire (a significant part of his guilt, he laid on the translator and publisher). Leaving from Kiev, Meletii protested in print against his forced abdication. Since then he has already openly declared himself Uniates and entirely subordinate to the leadership of the Jesuits. In 1629, Mr.. Meletios issued a "Paraeneisis albo napomnienie do narodu ruskiego" (Krakow), . which justifies its transition to union, . spoke about the decline of schools among the Orthodox Patriarchate and special offers, . but generally kept a moderate tone, and expressed warm sympathy for the suffering of the people,
. In the same year, Rev. Andrew Muzhilovsky sharply and vigorously objected to his "Apology", . also in Polish, . book "Antidote", . Meletii and tells him treatise: "Exethesis ..., . to iest Rozprawa miedzy Apoligia y Antidotem "(Lviv, . 1629), . already irritable and captious tone,
. For the "massacre" Catholics called Meleti Polish Cicero. In the same year, in October, Meletii participated in the Lviv Cathedral Uniates with Orthodox. Council did not succeed because of the Orthodox almost no one was. Since Meletii Dermanskom lived in his monastery, torturing himself with fasting and a hair shirt and collecting library. He died Dec. 27, 1633, Mr.. The only product Melety, he lived through the long, drawn to them in the first period of his activities when he was a teacher in the school in Vilna fraternity: it - his famous grammar. Meletios was, . that time, . excellent scholar, he taught in Latin artes humaniores and compared the Slavic New Testament with the Greek original, while at the same time, he taught and Slavonic, . to the south-western Russia, . in mind the strong polonization language spoken, . became obscure even for priests,
. Since the grammar Lawrence Zizaniya was maloudovletvoritelna, . Meletii compiled and published in Vilna in 1618, . its, . under the title: "Grammar slavenskie suntagma proper diligence on sinful Mnich Melety Smotrinskogo"; it was reprinted in 1619, . passed, . as the only suitable guidance, . and in Moscow (ed,
. 1648 and 1721); on it Lomonosov studied. In etymology and syntax, there are brief: rhetoric and piitika. For its time - is a beautiful book. - See. "Saukus et Paulus ruthenae unionis, sanguine b. Josaphat transformatus sive Meletius Smotriscius per Jacobum Suszam "(1666, new. ed. Martynov, Brussels, 1864; same Martynov reprinted in Leipzig in 1863. "Apology" Melety), P. Pekarsky "Representatives of Kiev learning in half of the XVII century." (Fatherland Notes, 1862, No. 2, pp. 566 et seq.) KS. Yelenevskaya "Meletii Smotritskii" ( "Orthodox Observer", 1861, No 6 - 8), H. Zasadkevich "Meletii Smotritskii as a philologist" (Kyiv University Izvestiya, 1875, No. 2 and 4). A. Kirpichnikov (died).

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