Franklin Pierce( President of the United States in 1853-57 gg.)
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Biography Franklin Pierce
Although his presidency coincided with the time of the great social stresses and fractures, which almost inevitably would lead to civil war, itself, Franklin Pierce in the U.S. today, is almost unknown. Born Nov. 23, 1804 in Hillsborough, Nц╣o Hampshire, the son of the governor and general of the revolution, Benjamin Pierce, Franklin attended the famous college Bouduin, and received his law degree, immediately went into politics. In 25 years, has been a Member of Parliament of New Hampshire, four years later represented his state in the House of Representatives, four years later became a senator. The fact that he, in spite of the rapid political rise, at least temporarily, returned from Washington back to New Hampshire in a quiet channel of law practice, due primarily to personal reasons.. His wife, a strictly brought up in the spirit of Calvinist pastor's daughter, Jane Appleton Pierce Minz, despised at the time denounced the profession of politics as well as the louche life in the federal capital.
When in 1846 the outbreak of war against Mexico, Pearce voluntarily joined the army and within a short time he rose from corporal to general team. During the advance from Veracruz to Mexico City, he has repeatedly displayed the courage, but in the capture of the capital, which meant a victory for the United States, Pierce took no part. The fall from his horse deprived of his military career climax. This was not the latest setback in the life of Franklin Pierce. Personal care is constantly accompanied by his. Jane Pierce was suffering depression and tuberculosis, Franklin himself was an alcoholic at a time when the excessive consumption of high-grade drinks in Washington political circles have been commonplace. The first son of the spouses Pierce died in infancy, . the second died at the age of four from typhoid, . and the youngest in the eyes of their parents was the victim of a railway accident - just before the inauguration of Franklin Pierce for the presidency of the United States March 4, 1853.,
. Breaking all the conventions of its predecessors, . Pierce, . deeply shaken, . uttered his inaugural speech without notes: "I am gratified by the fact, . that no heart, . except my own, . can not feel the personal regret and bitter sorrow, . I feel by appointment, . which would be more suited one, . while, . as I have little desire ",
. Elections for the presidency in 1852, Franklin Pierce won an overwhelming majority: 254 member elected board voted for him and only 42 for the candidate of the opposition Whig Winfield Scott. The result reflects the decline of the Whigs, but only at first glance could not understand that and the Democrats threatened to collapse, and that among the population they have only a scant majority.
. Pierce's presidency comes at a time, which puts high demands on the leadership in the White House
. Differences between North and South on the issue of slavery more and more magnified and demanded far-sighted policy, . problem of settlement recently conquered regions (New Mexico and California) required a solution as, . as the pressing issues of separation of land, . policy towards the Indians and the construction of railways,
. Moreover, the presence of the British in Central America, attacking American trade and economic interests and led to the emergence of the nationalists of various shades, . fishermen in New England, demanded access to Canadian waters, . movement "Young America" even called for a radical expansionist policies in the Caribbean and the Pacific.,
. In contrast, the state requirements, which filed for the office of President Pierce, life in the White House in the middle of the XIX century was a rather unassuming
. All staff were personal protection, personal secretary, who later made a submission to the assistant, gardener, and domestic workers. During his tenure as President Franklin Pierce ordered to install central heating with coal furnace - almost all of his predecessors complained about the icy cold in large areas of the house. President cared little for personal safety. The only known attempt at Franklin Pierce took a drunk and attacked his eggs hard boiled.
Most people who Pierce in 1853, appointed to his office, had almost no political experience. And yet the president considered it inappropriate to convert his office at least once unheard of, by the way, in American history. Post War Minister has held his close confidante Jefferson Davis. Outwardly, Pierce tried to avoid close contact with Davis, whose undisguised sympathy for the interests of the southern states met with disapproval. Often they met in Davis' home only after dark. But none of the advisers had a greater influence on the pier, than later president of the southern states. As Minister of War Davis was responsible for the conduct of federal-state policy towards the Indians. Although a graduate of the Military Academy at West Point admired Indian warriors (in 1832 he participated in the war "black Falcon), he insisted on the conquest of" Redskins ". In this he saw a prerequisite for building the Pacific Railroad. From the steady course of the Pierce administration was unable to choke off even the letter of the Indian Chief Seattle: "We are two different races with different backgrounds and different goals. Little in common between us. Inessential, where we spend the rest of our days ". Yet, demanded Seattle, you need to allow the Indians to visit the holy shrines of their ancestors. The request was not heard. Faster than before, the administration Pierce drove the Indians into reservations, and ruthless punishment was reluctant.
. No other event during Pierce's presidency is not shaken by the internal state of the United States more, . than the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, . which gave the inhabitants of both areas, . the principle of "popular sovereignty", . decision on continuation or prohibition of slavery,
. "Missouri Compromise in 1820, which reconciled the competing views on geographic lines, was, thus, effectively abolished. Kansas formulated two opposing the constitution and formed two rival governments. Planned development of this confrontation soon became a terrible reality, called "Bloody Kansas". The president, who in all the political maneuvering to get up on the side of the faction slave (during the crisis, he withdrew from his post as governor of Kansas, who spoke against slavery), completely lacked flair to the need for a compromise position. This is also manifested in the incident in Boston, where in 1854 fled from the South slave Anthony Burns was arrested on false charges of robbing a jewelry store. According issued in 1850, federal law, the Law on the fleeing slaves, Burns had to be returned to its original owners. Crowd perturbed abolitionists stormed the prison and tried to free a slave. Boston executive bodies by telegram asked for help from the President. Answer Pierce was clear: the law be obeyed, whatever the cost use of military forces and police. Anthony Burns lost his freedom, the president has made a Pyrrhic victory. The mood in the northern states turned increasingly against the interests of slaveholders.
Intensifying the contradictions between the northern and southern states were not only domestic but also foreign policy implications. Thus, the fraction of slaveholders in Congress demanded that territorial expansion towards the South, to cancel the abolition of slavery in Mexico. Pierce himself has never concealed that strives to increase American territory. Already in his inaugural speech he stated that his government does not care fearful prophecy, who see evil in American expansion. Accordingly passed a set of its diplomats. The majority (among them John-Mason and James Buchanan) came from the ranks of the radical wing of the Democratic Party's "Young America", whose members promoted the racist policy of expansion. One might anticipate that the staffing situation will lead to the collapse. When Spain in 1854 without any legal basis for seizure of the American ship "Black Uorier" in the United States was a wave of indignation. Pierce used this as an excuse to demand separation of Cuba from Spain. U.S. envoy in Madrid, . Pierre Court, . no different restraint (just an adherent of "Young America" shot in a duel with his French counterpart), . took another step: without cover from Washington has put the government in Madrid on a short-term ultimatum, . in which, among other things, demanded the displacement of the leading Cuban officials,
. Ispantsy'razgadali unauthorized trick Sule and did not respond to the ultimatum. Instead, they pay compensation for confiscated Black Uorier ". So once again the conflict was settled peacefully.
In the firm belief that Cuba is just as important for the United States, like previous federal states, the diplomatic team of Pierce's administration strongly pursued the project of annexation. In August 1854 Sule, Buchanan and Mason were communiquц╘ - Ostend Manifesto, which demanded the forcible separation of Cuba from Spain, if the Spaniards did not sell the island voluntarily. After it became known about the secret agreement, sharp protests have arisen not only in the northern United States, but also in Europe. Pierce and his radical advisers were forced to give. Unauthorized actions of diplomats "Young America" completely destroyed the chances of a possible annexation of Cuba for many years to come.
Similarly, heavy loads have been relations with Britain. It was caused by events in Greytaune, a small British colony on the San Juan River, whose existence was for the Americans, who had on the other side of the river trade department, as an eyesore. After the American captain had killed a black pilot, and one Briton hurt a little bottle of an American lawyer, began a rapid escalation of violence. Government Pierce sent a warship Greytaun "YUSS Cyan". Its commander, Captain Hollins, insisted on an apology from the British and compensation in the amount of 24 000 dollars. When the British did not give in, Hollins threatened bombardment Greytauna. Residents fled. Soon Hollins leveled the city to the ground - the damage amounted to $ 3 million. Lord Clarendon, British foreign minister, called this action a crime, which has no equal in modern history. New York Tribune of Hollins characterized as "unnecessary, unjustified, inhuman use of military violence". The President also firmly defended the actions of Pierce Hollins in his annual message to Congress. Relations between the U.S. and Britain were still more tests, when two suspicious person, Henry L. Kinney and William Walker attempted to realize his dream of power and wealth in Central America. Kinney bought a large plot of land in Nicaragua, who allegedly belonged to the "king" Indian tribe moskitos, a man whose title was more than doubtful. Artful speculator sold land to many American tycoons and government members Pierce. According to rumors, this was mixed and the president. Such actions have increased doubts about the seriousness of the British in the American policy. In London, had feared that the United States use of adventurers such as Kinney for expansion in the South. Another ticklish, . than the situation with Kinney, . which eventually was expelled from Nicaragua, . Pierce had the administration's attitude to William Walker, . crafty expansionists, . who in 1855 established a puppet government in Nicaragua, . rallied the disaffected masses and proclaimed the restoration. Slavery,
. Despite the persistent warnings of his Minister of Foreign Affairs, . President Pirspriznal illegally came to power Walker and his government formally, . some slave owners or the Democrats of the southern states saw in Nicaragua, the future federal state in the U.S.,
. But the company failed Walker. Coalition of Central American states was made to kneel political adventurer, and Pierce had no choice but to quickly send a mission to rescue Walker. But Walker got into a new adventure and was shot in Honduras in 1860.
. If we measure the foreign policy of Franklin Pierce on its claim to the expansion of U.S. territory in the spirit of the ideology of "apparent purpose" shelf, his policy was not destined to experience great success
. The desire to snatch a piece of land next Mexicans met with considerable resistance in their own country. Also, the so-called Purchase Gedsdena (on behalf of the reseller James Gedsdena), which resulted in the U.S. in 1853, bought from Mexico, a narrow strip of land, not found public approval. The area covers 30 000 square miles in today's Arizona and New Mexico, was so scarce that the Member of Congress from Ohio succinctly admitted, "even a wolf can not they feed themselves". But Pierce did not matter. He had hoped to push through the newly acquired area of the projected transcontinental railroad route, thereby economically strengthen South. But this goal Pierce has not been implemented, the construction of the southern route was realized only during the Civil War.
. Perhaps the biggest success in his expansionist policy was issued in August 1856 the law under which every citizen of the United States, discovered an unoccupied island with deposits of guano, could claim it for the United States
. On the questionable legal basis of the U.S. were joined at least 70 islands (including Midway and the Christmas Island). Thus, fertilizer, guano, droppings of seabirds, has played a significant role in expanding the American empire.
When Pierce in 1857, goodbye to politics, only a few contemporaries grieved about it. Rather than respond to the challenges of his time, he devoted himself facing ago, focused on his predecessors' policy, which strained relations between North and South have become more acute. "Bloody Kansas" became a symbol of the scandalous weakness of his government.
. Soon, . upon the expiration of the stay in the position of President Pierce, . Republican politician, Charles Francis Adams wrote to the senator from Massachusetts, Charles Sumner, . that can only rejoice, . that was a president, . serious mistakes of his administration will serve as a lesson for the successor,
. But the grandson of John Adams was wrong: even more than President Pierce, his successor, James Buchanan was guided by the interests of the southern states. Pearce had to go all the way to the U.S. very grave crisis in its history. He insisted, unpopular in the North, the opinion that no violence can not be applied to the seceding States, and rejected Lincoln's emancipation of slaves as "unconstitutional". Branded as a traitor by many Americans, a lonely and bitter, Pierce died four years later after the American Civil War, October 8, 1869 in Concord, New Hampshire. Only half a century later, a monument was erected, which reminds him.