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Pisarev, Dmitri Ivanovich

( gifted critic)

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Biography Pisarev, Dmitri Ivanovich
photo Pisarev, Dmitri Ivanovich
born Oct. 2, 1840, Mr.. in the ancestral village of Znamenskoye, on the border of Orel and Tula provinces. Up to 11 years, he grew up in the family, the only beloved son, brought up under the influence of the mother - the former schoolgirl, to 4 years of age had already read and fluent in French. The boy had been suppressed all relations with people of a serf, he was trained for brilliant secular careers. During exercises in the gymnasium (St. Petersburg) Pisarev lived in the house of his uncle and educated at his expense, surrounded by the same landowner's situation, as in the countryside. He was distinguished by an exemplary diligence, unquestioning obedience senior, in his own words, "belong to the category of sheep and 16 years completed the course with a medal, but with a very mediocre knowledge and a very low mental development. In an autobiographical article "Our University Science" Pisarev says that at the end of high school his favorite occupation was coloring pictures in illustrated magazines, and favorite reading - novels of Cooper and, especially, Dumas. "History of England, Macaulay was for him irresistible, the critical journal articles gave the impression of a" code gieroglificheskih inscriptions; Russian writers were known to the young man only by name. On the History and Philology Pisarev did not by conscious choice, but with the sole purpose of avoiding hated math and legal dryness. The University Pisarev languishing under the yoke of scholasticism, . called pure science, . forced to translate the German book, . contents of which he is not available and uninteresting ( "Linguistics Wilhelm von Humboldt and Hegel), . languish on the translation of Strabo or, . on the recommendation of Professor, . satisfy their desire for learning first-hand stories and reading the encyclopedia,
. Subsequently Pisarev found that even reading the "Petersburg", or "Moscow News", not a brilliant literary merit, would have his mental development is much more useful than the first two years of university science. Literary education is also little moving forward: Pisarev just managed to get acquainted with Shakespeare, Schiller, Goethe, whose names were filled constantly before his eyes in all of literary history. In the third year Pisarev was adopted for literary activity, in a magazine for girls - "Dawn". In his duties is to conduct bibliographic department, in the first year of cooperation, he gives a report on "Oblomov" and "Noble Nest". "Bibliography of mine - said Pisarev, - dragged me out of corked cells to fresh air". University is left from that time entirely to one side; Pisarev decides not to leave the literary field. Bibliographic work in girlish magazine could not, however, differ especially freedom. Pisarev learned many facts, remembering other people's ideas, but personally, remained still in the "discharge of sheep". Article: "blunders immature mind" quite a sharp turn "in his mental development Pisarev relates to 1860, in the article:" Our university science "era" mental crisis "calls the summer of 1859, Mr.. The last definition should recognize the more accurate. This summer, a romantic drama played out, deeply shaken Pisarev, - an unhappy love for a cousin. Neither the object of infatuation or relatives do not sympathize with this passion, and Pisarev had to endure a bitter struggle with the unsatisfied feeling. Suffering made for ideological movement Pisarev much more than its book experiments. In a letter to his mother, he puts his heart failure in direct contact with their new attitudes. "I decided - he writes - to concentrate in itself all the sources of my happiness, began to build a whole theory of egoism, admired this theory and thought she was invincible. This theory gave me such a complacent, self-confidence and courage, which at the first meeting is very unpleasant to hit all my friends ". "In a fit of arrogance, he took up the question of science, completely alien to him. This shows what an important role in the outlook Pisarev played affects. In his life there is no history of the moral world, gradually, step by step, working out its content, but there are a number of explosions, are immediately reflected in the ideological process of the writer. Yesterday's "sheep" today feels like "Prometheus". Idyllic obedience senior suddenly replaced unlimited skepticism that reached the negation of the sun and moon. All reality produced at the young man seems a hoax, but his ego has grown to immense sizes. In a fit of megalomania Pisarev began the study of Homer, to prove one of his "titanic ideas" about the fate of the ancient. Mania was over this mental illness; Pisarev was placed in a psychiatric hospital. Here, he twice attempted to commit suicide and then, after 4 months, ran. Skabichevskys) remained until the end of life left and the habit of the strongest interpretations. Later Pisarev beloved subject - science - every time he threatened to errors and unfounded hobbies, . when popularizer took it upon myself to speak up in any scientific debate, . enough to recall an article "Feats of European authorities', . scathing contemptuous irony in the name of Pasteur supposedly scientific truth about the origin of arbitrary,
. In the spring of 1861,. Pisarev, had finished a course at the university, received a silver medal for the argument of "Apollonius of Tyana". Even earlier, in "Russian Word" (edited by Blagosvetlov) was printed Pisarev translate a poem by Heine: Atta Troll, "and soon began Pisarev enhanced cooperation in this magazine, although in April 1861,. Pisarev was looking for cooperation in the "Wanderer", the organ more than a conservative. When Pisareva later rebuked for this step, it is justified by the fact that until a close acquaintance with Blagosvetlov "had no idea about the serious responsibilities of an honest man of letters". Cooperation in the Russian Word "was to Pisareva break with the closest university friends, who considered a betrayal of science journalism. "Carelessly and cheerfully went Pisarev on the slippery path journalist" and discovered an amazing activity, delivering a year to 50 printed pages. Spring 1862. Pisarev has been prosecuted for an article, . published in the underground magazine, . was imprisoned in a fortress, and remained in custody for more than 4 years, but his writing did not stop, . the contrary, . developed more vigorously, . because it is the only business and entertainment prisoner,
. Pisarev not complained of his situation and found it even that good side, that it has to focus and serious activities. In the first two years of work in the "Russian Word" Pisarev is, in moral outlook, epicurean, was not without points of contact with the aesthetics of. He "respects" Maikova as "intelligent and human development as a preacher of the harmonic pleasures of life". This sermon is called "sober outlook" (Article. "Pisemsky, Turgenev and Goncharov"). Pushkin, so hated by Pisarev later for him now author of the novel, standing on a number of precious historical monuments "and, together with Ulrich von Guttenom, Voltaire, Goethe, Schiller, publicist sample. Art most characteristic of this period - "Bazarov". Pisarev so engrossed in Turgenev, . that admits to "some incomprehensible pleasure, . which does not explain either the interest that told by the events of, . Amazingly faithful to the basic ideas "; it is due, . hence, . only the aesthetic senses - "nightmare" of later critics Pisarev,
. He perfectly understands the strengths and weaknesses Bazarov type detail indicating where Bazarov rights and where he "zaviraetsya". Pisarev understands and source "zaviratelstva": extreme protest against "phrases gegelistov" and "wool-transcendental forced synthesis". Extreme understandable, but "ridiculous" and "realists" should be smart about themselves and not proviratsya in the heat of battle dialectical. "To deny entirely arbitrary, - says Pisarev, - one way or another, natural, and indeed existing in a human need or capacity - means removed from pure empiricism ... To cut people a yardstick with a mean fall in a narrow intellectual despotism ". These words Pisarev subsequently used by his opponents when he began to "destroy the aesthetics". Now Pisarev not yet an unconditional fan of Bazarov, as he will soon become, he acknowledges his "very uneducated man," stands for "harmless (t. e. aesthetic) pleasure "and do not agree with Bazarov, though people convicted to live exclusively in the studio", "the employee must have a rest", "man must refresh pleasant experiences". In conclusion, Pisarev admires the author of the novel as an artist, "a man unconsciously and unintentionally sincere" - therefore, recognizes the unconscious creativity, as one of the "nightmare" in the future. In addition to explicitly aesthetic trends, Pisarev in this period shows, and cultural world view, quite different from the later. Discussing the relations between personality and environment, Pisarev decisive force considers environment, society: individuals are not to be blamed, as the products of the surrounding environment. Hence - the great interest in the artistic types, which embodies the people are small, powerless and worthless: they are - an illustration of the public atmosphere. Actually, Pisarevskii ideas "during which time he expressed a little. Pisarev rebels against speculative philosophy behind the needs of the crowd "mere mortals", t. e. Democratization and the usefulness of knowledge. All this - the proof of the truth, well articulated by the critic: "We have always happens that a young man, graduated from the course of study, it becomes at once an implacable enemy of the system of teaching, which he tested on himself". Pisarev under severe criticism of the classical system and comes to the preaching of science as the basis of high school program (later Pisarev abruptly changed his mind and will require the removal of the natural sciences from the gymnasium course). Change the atmosphere clearly felt from the article: "Flowers of innocent humor. It sharply raises the question of a comprehensive cultural role of science; idea Buckle reigns unchallenged and unlimited; science - "the most pressing needs of our society", . popularization of science - the highest designation of "thinking people",
. In the following article: "Motives of the Russian drama" The same idea is expressed very vividly: young people should feel the "deepest respect and ardent love for the frog sprawled ... This is where it is, in itself a frog, and is saving and updating of the Russian people ". New world view is revealed in its entirety in the article "realists". This worldview - nothing like the full development of ideas and psychology of Bazarov. The author repeatedly refers to Turgenev's hero, identifies it with the term "realist", contrasts the "aesthetics" and even Belinsky. The definition of "strict and consistent realism" as "economy of mental powers" confirms earlier refuted a dictum of Bazarov at the expense of nature - a workshop. Hence the idea of utility, the idea that you need. A necessary first of all food and clothing, all the rest, hence the "need nonsensical". All the absurd requirements can combine a single concept: the aesthetics. "Whichever way you turn - anywhere on the aesthetics bump", "aesthetics, unaccountability, routine, habit - it's completely equivalent to the concept of. Hence the immense number of dark forces, which must destroy realist: Pygmy involved in sculpture, painting, music, phrase-mongers, scientists such as "Sirens" - Macleay and Granovsky, parodies of poets such as Pushkin. "It's a shame and reprehensible to leave the thought of a dead past", . so let it "pass by" Walter Scott with the historical novel, . Grimm, . Russian scientists with their studies of folk art and outlook, . even in general, "the ancient period of Russian literature,
. Pisarev stipulated that "realists" do not understand the benefit in a narrow sense, as they think their "antagonists". Pisarev permits and poets, but with the proviso that they "clearly and vividly revealed before us those aspects of human life that we need to know in order to thoroughly think and act". But this clause does not save the art and poetry. Pisarev continually raises a dilemma: either to feed hungry people, "or" enjoy the wonders of art "- or the popularization of natural science, or" exploiters of human naivety ". Society, which has in its midst the hungry and poor and at the same time develops the art, Pisarev, for example Chernyshevskogo compares with a hungry savage, adorned themselves with jewels. To date, at least, creativity - "a foolish demand". When parsing only works of arts, . allowed Pisarev - poetry, . it requires, . that the critic regarded them solely as factual, . read them, . we "looping department of foreign news in the newspaper, . and not paying any attention to the particular talent, . language author, . his manner of narration: the case "aesthetics", . rather than "thinking man" ( "Doll tragedy with a bunch of civic grief", . "Aesthetics of destruction"),
. Obviously, . This requirement reduces to the point of poetry reporterstva and remove from it any independent right to exist: "the dignity of the telegraph is, . that he passed the news quickly and correctly, . and certainly not in, . to telegraph wire portrayed a different gyrus and arabesques ",
. It consistently Pisarev reached identifications architects with the cooks, spilling cranberry jelly in fancy shapes, painters with the old women who belyatsya and ruddy. History of art as a simple explanation: it was a capitalist patrons of the arts and the cheap labor of corrupt or cowardly architects and decorators ( "Destruction of aesthetics"). Such a bold idea and should have been expressed in the appropriate form. Style Pisarev's always been a wonderful brilliance of exposition, but in the heroic period of the destruction of aesthetics, he has acquired, in addition, the drama, as if the critic, destroying the drama and comedy, he decided to take the place of writer's. According to him, "men of science and life" do not write poems and dramas, because the size of their intelligence and strength of their love for the idea did not allow them to deal with all this "aesthetic". Not for nothing but, . the author himself once amplified to compose a novel - now he is constantly making a scene with his adversaries, . with public, . with characters parsed pieces ( "My friend, my darlings Arkashenka", . On, . Anna!, . On, . loins of mankind "),
. On each page of the author feel the rapture of his task and unshakable belief in the irresistible force of his sermons. Pisarev wanted to "reason with" the public about Pushkin, "to pass its verdict, the matters decided by Belinsky," in terms of consistent realism. Articles about Pushkin - an extreme expression Pisarevskii criticism. They are curious because Pisarev found here remarkable originality, broke with all authorities, even with the most respected of them - with Chernyshevsky. The author of "The Aesthetic Relation of Art to Reality" Pisarev gave all the ideas against the aesthetic: himself Pisarev announced that Chernyshevski before it destroyed the aesthetics. Chernyshevski, in the eyes of Pisarev - and a brilliant thinker, and author of the classic novel, the creator of an ideal type - Rakhmetova. But Chernyshevsky, for all its realism, recognizes Pushkin and Belinsky highly valued article about him. Pisarev not say in print about this crime Chernyshevskogo, but in a letter to his mother calls himself "the most consistent of the Russian writers, and relies more on the credibility of Bazarov than Chernyshevsky. Pisarev Bazarov remains true even in the nature of war: Bazarov attributed to Pushkin's thoughts and feelings, they are not expressed - the same make and Pisarev. All charges are based on identification of the author's identity with his hero. Pushkin was to blame for what may be criticized for Eugene Onegin: he is responsible for the banality and intellectual inertia of higher-class Russian first quarter of XIX century, is his fault that his bored hero - not a fighter and not an employee. Pisarev makes absolutely no leniency Pushkin, even in such cases, when other, he diligently looks for excuses and explanations. The cult of pure poetry, typical of Heine, Pisarev justifies the adverse external circumstances: not even "real" Heine's attitude to the woman he had not criticized, but on Pushkin collapses in much less guilt. Generally on Pushkin critic have sophisticated forces, fighting for the honor of realism and its consistency. But it is this battle and demonstrated the failure of a new direction Pisarev. It was therefore possible only by explicitly dispel misunderstandings - by mixing the personal and moral issue with copyright artistic. The hottest philippic against Pushkin wrote about the duel with Onegin Lenski. The words of the poet: "And now the public opinion! Spring honor - our idol!" And on what turns the world! " - Pisarev understood so, . like Pushkin at this moment idealizes his hero and recognizes the legitimacy of prejudice, . leading to a duel: "Pushkin justifies and supports its authority timidity, . carelessness and clumsiness of individual thought ... ",
. Another feature of Pisarev in this period of his activity - an extreme cult of personality that goes completely at odds with previous ideas of the omnipotence of Pisarev environment. Cult would not represent anything original and therefore Pisarev could not profit from it such damaging conclusions, which are made of the idea of a coherent realistic. In some respects, however, the individualistic conception was to provide substantial benefit criticism. This is reflected mainly in the teaching of his reasoning. "Shrine of the human person" prompts Pisarev require educators respect for the individual child to his natural inclination, to his consciousness. Raising personal autonomy, personal dignity and power - the basic principle of Pisarev. Practical application of this principle is based on the extreme enthusiasm for the ideas of Comte. Pisarev, offers a model program for high school and university, guided kontovskoy classification of Sciences; mathematics should be based teaching gymnasia. Simultaneously, the study projected crafts, . many utilitarian reasons: knowledge of the craft will reduce cases of desertion; mental workers, . deprived of, . can earn our own food in physical labor and not to engage in transactions reprehensible, and finally, . physical labor is more than just "a genuine rapprochement with the People, . recognizing, . if, . only physical workers,
. Pisarev repeated here Saint simonistskuyu the idea of "rehabilitation of physical labor", . the "connection between the laboratory scientist and a specialist shop craftsman," but Saint-Simonian had never occurred to physical labor to sacrifice intellectual education,
. Universities Pisarev proposes to abolish the division of faculties. Before rejecting the history, . as science, . he now, . on the instructions of Comte, . connects it with the mathematical and physical sciences, . from compulsory program with differential and integral calculus and ending with the history, . taught only in the last year,
. Fantastic and the impracticability of these projects is clear at a glance. Pisarev quite right, . saying, . his pedagogical articles "stick to the purely negative point of view and focus on the systematic exposure of pedagogical quackery and homegrown ineptitude"; organizational, . creative thought and he is not found,
. For Pisarev there was no difference between the logic and the phenomena of reality, mathematics and dialectic served for him infallible reflection of public and private life and the only source for practical reasoning. Simple, schematic thought irresistibly fascinated Pisarev, for the sake of those fascinating qualities, he could put aside all doubt, any skepticism. Complex phenomena in life and psychology alike slip from his insights. Hence his controversial Belinsky. Article: "Scholasticism XIX century" for ideas Belinsky recognized only historical significance. At the beginning of a heroic or Bazarov Belinsky period compared with Bazarov and defeated for their sympathy Raphael, . not worth a copper penny, . but in the article "Angry impotence" principles of Belinsky called "excellent" and for a modern audience,
. A little later, the critic Belinsky once opposed realistic: the one on his knees before the holy art, and this one on his knees before the holy science ( "Walking through the gardens of Russia's literature"). In the article "Pushkin and Belinsky" recognizes "the kinship of real criticism and Belinsky," "in the course of 20 years, the best people of the Russian literature develops his ideas, and there is still no end in sight to this work". Obviously, criticism was obvious that she, the other side of talent and work Belinsky - aesthetic or journalistic; include the writer's personality in its entirety, he failed. After leaving the fortress, at the end of 1866, Pisarev discovered apparent exhaustion. Articles for 1867 and 1868 years, pale and impersonal: Pisarev is mostly limited to more or less eloquent statement parsed content of the works ( "The struggle for life" - on Dostoevsky's novel Crime and Punishment, article about the novels of Andre Leo) and he admires the historical novels Erkmana -Shatriana, . recognizing their successful attempt to popularize the history and benefit of national consciousness,
. Pisarev Recent articles published in "Notes of the Fatherland". Since 1867, Mr.. his relations with Blagosvetlov ceased; employee "cases", replacing "Russian Word", Pisarev was not, although there was published earlier given them a historical article. Death overtook Pisarev in the prime years, but hardly in his prime (he drowned in the sea, in Dubbelne, 4 July 1868). Pisarev instantly and vividly on fire, and as quickly extinguished. It was a blast of youthful energy protesting, the heroic scale of organic destructive force, experienced indescribable joy in the process of destruction. Undoubtedly, and this energy can benefit society, most of whom had just awakened to the spiritual life of self. At that time was valuable every believer to call the person in the name of human dignity. Pisarev precisely these appeals considered his appointment writer. For him - until the end of an aristocrat, detached from the black masses - did not exist most burning question of the day: People. And yet he was, albeit on a limited stage, the man who dreamed about what Gogol - a man, who could honestly say the word "Forward!". Pisarev was one of the most courageous representatives of the spontaneous movement of the sixties. He will remain a curious subject for study, as an integral way of psychological well-known bands in the history of Russian social development. His personal views - the so-called Pisarevskii ideas - have long been the only known symptom of cultural trends, transition, and only with the same historical point of view instructive. The sanctity of capital bequeathed Pisarev - ideas about the progress of the education, the identity of - did not belong to him even in his time and his personal passion gone to the area of archival material. Publishing. op. Pisarev, S. Pavlenkova (in 12 volumes), came during the life of the author, except for the last two volumes, second edition. in 6 volumes, with a portrait of Pisarev and article Eug. Solovyov - in 1894. Biography Pisarev, with excerpts from his unpublished letters, written by Eug. Solovyev for "Biografich. bibl. "F. Pavlenkova. - Wed. also п-.п°. Skabichevskys, in his "Collected Works". Yves. Ivanov.

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