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BURNS, Robert

( English poet)

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Biography BURNS, Robert
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'Throughout his appearance breathed mind and strength, and only his eyes betrayed a poetic nature and temperament' - Sir Walter Scott wrote about his great compatriot Robert Burns. The value of creativity Burns exclusively for Scotland, he occupies a prominent place in the entire history of English literature. Thank Burns has spread far beyond his homeland. In the poems of the poet's probably the last time reflected in all his glory best, humane ideas of the Age of Enlightenment. Moreover, the poet sharpen his other contemporaries criticized bourgeois phenomenon of English life, while his political ideal was a revolutionary struggle. In the feature is on Burns poem - the zenith of English literature of the eighteenth century.

Son of small Scottish farmer, he spent his childhood among the poor, rented land from large landowners. My father gave Robert and his younger brother Gilbert in a parochial school, . and then pool their savings with the neighbors hired a tutor of the young John Murdoch, . future renowned educator, . Robert who taught English and French, . as well as literature.,

. Burns fell in love with Shakespeare, Milton
. Possessing an excellent memory, he quoted many passages from their works. Murdoch, with whom Burns had become very friendly, caring attitude instilled in the boy by the way - the language of the poet's striking brevity, clarity and expressiveness.

From childhood favorite hero of Burns was a William Wallace, a famous Scot, who fought in the thirteenth century against the British invaders. In the late eighteenth century Scotland, more than a century ago, forcibly annexed by Britain, is increasingly losing its national character: even the Scots language is gradually becoming a dialect. The dream of liberation, which was associated with the restoration of the Stuart dynasty to the throne (of Scots descent), often took the form of protest against the new, bourgeois, forms of life. Burns at first, too, felt a similar sentiment, but very soon realized that the people themselves, not by the goodwill of the monarch to gain freedom. The British bourgeoisie declared itself an enemy of the French Revolution, while Burns spoke about his affection for her.

But it will happen later, and as poverty drove the young Burns from place to place - he worked in the city on a linen factory, then returned to the village. Poems he wrote in 17 years, often just behind the plow. And at 27 he managed to publish his first book 'The poems, written mostly HF Scottish dialect'. Edinburgh know so carried away by the young poet, which was strongly invite him to his aristocratic salons. However, Burns was interested in them rather as an exotic rarity, a kind of romantic poet hlebopashets. At one dinner parties Burns saw a 15-year-old Walter Scott, who already knew by heart many verses of the poet, and wanted to meet him.

Light Burns lost interest very quickly, he returned to the village. The plight of the farmer would have been for him happy, if provided food. Denial of the poet was once again forced to move to the city. He went to the post of excise official in Dumfries. Burns's loyal friends here were John Syme, owner of a small country house, and Dr. Maxwell, through the end of the health Burns, broken undue distress. Robert Burns died in the prime of his creative life in the age of 37, leaving his wife Jean, and five sons, the eldest of whom was 9 years old and the youngest was born on the day of her father's funeral. Gene lived to be 80 years and with the help of friends, especially Saimaa, was able to give all children an education. Meanwhile, Burns' posthumous fame grew with each passing year.

Leading motive works of Robert Burns - Freedom. The poet sees her in the liberation of people from the hated power of King, in freeing the peasants from the yoke of the landlord, a patriot in the struggle against foreign invaders and, finally, the possibility of unrestricted expression of all human abilities. In the poem 'The tree of liberty' youth-author naturally drawn to the interlocutors, talks about the revolution in France and calls to follow suit. Burns writes about national heroes, freedom fighters in Scotland - about Uollece, the legendary King Bruce. In the poem 'Bruce - Scots' speech is the king - so the poet diversifies his style, introducing new artistic techniques. They appear in his cantata 'Jolly Beggars'. This is as if made from the sketch, the picture: frost, the leaves are falling:

In those days a crowd of tramps
Before dawn evening
Give rags for the hearth
In some tavern.

(All verses in the essay are given in the translation S.YA.Marshaka.)
And gathered in her outcast society: ex-soldier, a former canteen-keeper, a buffoon, kotoryq since the days of Shakespeare are often popular media wisdom, strolling violinist, poet. All of them are poor, thrown over the side of life, but are subject to greed, selfishness, and therefore so are human:

That night, the hearts and mugs
To the brim, we are.
Here, on the friendly party,
All drunk and all are equal!

Burns, however, is far from being able to idealize such a state of society. In the poetry of Burns' love for the sounds of his native Scotland, to its pristine nature:

In the mountains of my heart ... Hitherto I was there.
On the track of a deer flying over the rocks.
I Gonyu deer scare a goat.
In the mountains of my heart, and I myself at the bottom.

Sometimes the poet shifts the ancient legend, to express in her own thoughts about the people. People are immortal for Burns, the king not to destroy it, in it - a source of joy and strength. Excellent poem 'John Barleycorn'. It is not only about the eternity of the people - about the nature of immortality. This poem - a remarkable example of the fact that only a true poet of the forces in the small to see great things through a little to say about many. Not only the freedom-loving and patriotic poems, but unpretentious and at first glance, the picture of life in Burns - highly artistic works. The world of his poetry - the world of the poor, honest and sympathetic farmer. Poet finds joy and beauty in the rural pleasures, in the fleeting visits, in the friendship of the two villagers. He is interested in a nest of field mice, cut daisy, pusteyuschie autumn field. "The fact that the sons of important scientists believe nonsense, for the sons of labor has deep and serious meaning: a fervent hope, fleeting encounters, are affectionate farewell to their most joyful part of their existence '- wrote Burns. One of the best poems, pictures - 'John Anderson', memories of long days of friendship:

. Now, we wandered down the hill,
. Not raznimaya hands,
. And the land we lie down together,
. John Anderson, my friend!

. Very excited, personal and yet truly popular poem 'In the fields beneath the snow and rain ...'

. In the fields beneath the snow and rain,
. My dear friend,
. My poor friend,
. You hid I cloak
. From a winter storm,
. From a winter storm

But there's Burns and other poems: in front of us the characters of the village. In their descriptions, so much sympathy and brightness, sometimes wit, that these individuals are not forgotten:

Best guy our age,
Nice guy
Stately guy
On his shoulder he wears a plaid
Glorious highland guy.
Wears a cap patty
Nice guy
Stately guy
He is unfamiliar with treason,
Glorious highland guy.

Other poems - about young girls: 'Shelah O'Neal', 'barefoot girl' or known by everybody Jenny, running from a date:

Making their way to the gate
Paul along the boundaries,
Jenny got soaked to the skin
Evening in the Rye.

Comes in. Burns speech and folk beliefs. However, neither the author nor his characters are not afraid of evil spirits and relate to 'the horrors' with a healthy curiosity. In the verse novel 'Tarn O'Shenter' drunken reveler, glanced at the young witch. Seized her dancing on the Sabbath, he accidentally gave himself away, but hell-spawn, chasing a Temom just that and was able to tear his mare's tail.

It is a special place in the work of Robert Burns took the epigrams. He composed them almost always impromptu. Epigrams sometimes humorous, but often sharply ridiculed the aristocracy and the rich, bourgeois: 'The fans know', 'On the Lord Galloway', 'Preacher Lemingtonskoy Church'. Epigrams witty, with an unexpected splitting finale:

Bending at the coffin entrance
- Oh, Death! - Exclaimed the nature, --
When will I again
Such a numbskull!..

'Epitaph for William Graham, Esq'

No, he did not have a false view
His eyes do not lie.
They truthfully say
With their owner - switch.

'The portrait of the spiritual person'.

John Barleycorn!

Three Kings angered he
And it was decided
What will be lost forever, John

They were ordered to dig up the plow
Tomb of King,
That the glorious John, a dashing soldier,
Not out of the ground.

Grass was covered mountain slope,
In the streams of water completely,
And from the land goes John

All the same stubborn and obstinate,
On the hill in the summer heat
Looming he spears enemies
Pumping head.

But autumn is sober.
And, heavily loaded,
Wilted under the weight of cares
Bent old John.

It is time to die --
Winter is not far.
And here again Foes
Undertook old.

He knocked hooked knife
One blow down,
And, as a tramp on pravezh,
Guarding him on the current.

John began hitting
Villains in the morning.
Then, tossing upward
Circling in the wind.

He was well absorbed,
At the bottom of the gloomy.
But the water does not sink John

Not sparing his bones,
Threw them into the fire,
A heart miller among the rocks
Ruthlessly rubbed.

Raging its blood in the boiler
Under the hoop rages,
Boil in circles on the table
And cheers the soul.

Not for nothing was the late John
When life fellow, --
Valor he raises
From the bottom of the hearts.

He drove out of the head
Swarm tiresome worries.
Over a mug of the widow's heart
From the joy of singing ...

So let before the end of time
Do not dry bottom
In the barrel, where seething John

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