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Biography RICHARDSON Samuel
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She loved Richardson
Not because to read ...

Youtube mother of Tatyana Larina occurred in the last decade of the eighteenth century, the echoes of past glory Richardson still rang in Europe, was considered good manners love his novels, even if you do not read. In 'Pamela', 'Clarissa', 'History of Sir Charles Grandison' most clearly and convincingly embodied the ideals and life values of the Enlightenment, with all its achievements and weaknesses, spiritual ups and illusions. Enthusiastically welcomed by readers of the eighteenth century, these novels with the advent of the new romantic pores moved into the category of old-fashioned and boring: 'And the incomparable Grandison, which leads us to sleep' (Pushkin). Literature is no longer lay claim to the creation of samples of human behavior, . and the moral pathos of Richardson, . its didacticism began to irritate a new generation of readers, . whose tastes for a long time defined the dismissive attitude to the creation of this writer,
. Meanwhile, much-loved Tatiana Pushkin, . alien in its provincial backwater vagaries of literary fashion, . continued to delight to read his novels and, . imagining herself Clarissa, . composing a letter 'for dear hero', . investing in them 'his secret fever, . dreams ... ',

. The dramatic conflicts and the acuteness of emotional tension, . rich inner world and emotional subtlety heroines - not whether they, . 'moralizing and chinnye' novels of Richardson and in the eighteenth ve-tion would not cause such a fervent and sincere sympathy,
. No wonder Richardson has long been recognized as a classic of English literature, English founder of the psychological novel.

Samuel Richardson made a career typical of the eighteenth century to the energetic and capable man of the Third Estate. The son of a carpenter, given away as an apprentice to a London printer, he worked his way up to owner's own printing press and the head of the guild of typographers and very proud that his forces had reached a respected position in society. At the same time, . starting in 50 years to write novels, . He became acutely aware, . that night reading in secret from master when bought at a pittance earned a candle could not replace the real education, . a lack of familiarity with ancient languages, . Greek and Roman classics (knowledge considered necessary for any cultural rights) unprofitable him apart from other novelists, . primarily from the main literary opponent and rival, Henry Fielding,

As Daniel Defoe, Richardson came from a medium-Puritan dissidents, religious dissenters, followers of a much more radical Protestant ideas than the official Anglicanism. In addition, they are suspicious of the creative imagination, believing that fiction is not far from falsehood, one of the worst for a Protestant sins. Here, read the Bible and mostly religious-didactic works, were permitted as biographies of real people, served as instructive examples of godly or vicious behavior. With this in mind, Richardson gave myself not for the author's novels, but only for a publisher supposedly authentic letters (though this one was no longer able to deceive). He was deeply convinced that literature must teach and uplift the reader, to help him choose the correct pattern of behavior. Even at the turn of XVII-XVIII centuries, the dissidents have continued to live apart religious communities, attending his prayer meetings and every alien entertainment. But it was Richardson's generation has witnessed and participated in important changes. The rapid development of the economy led to a rapid growth of the third estate, improving the social status of many of its representatives. They have had new opportunities to intermarry with the aristocracy, the desire differently than before, spend their leisure. In these circumstances, the Puritan ideals were gradually losing their integrity and belligerent isolation, influenced by the views of educational.

Puritan person's admission to the secular-oriented interests of the cultural life of the earth, sought to learn the new spiritual knowledge for themselves, while at the same time trying to bring his own moral ideals. This process reflected the work of Richardson.

A successful printer began his literary career with the fact that the meeting has issued letters of samples, showing the reader of the third estate, a verbal etiquette should be followed by writing letters. The situation is one of the letters captivated the imagination of the author and provided the basis for his first novel, 'Pamela, or virtue rewarded' (1740-1741). Richardson told the real story which I heard from a friend: how the owner tried to seduce her maid, but not having succeeded, married a virtuous girl. Richardson, it was important to prove, . the plot of the close and familiar to every reader of his life may be no less fascinating, . than extraordinary heroic and magical adventures of noble ladies and gentlemen in the gallantly-adventure novels, . which has engrossed his contemporaries,
. And he succeeded, . but precisely because, . that he was not just 'true' and laid out the real story, . and discovered and brought to light in her perfect moral meaning, and presented it as authentic in their household details and psychologically accurate model of behavior of the heroine.,

. Raised poor, but virtuous parents and entered the service of the venerable old lady, Pamela knowingly acts as a religious duty orders
. After the death of the old lady vending her son heroine with democratic fervor defended their right to virtue: let it just the maid, her soul as immortal as the soul of Princess. Thus, Pamela is fighting for freedom of the will and the integrity of his personality. But the retention of moral freedom - this is a necessary condition of happiness in earthly life. Richardson argues that a religious duty and worldly aspirations of rights does not contradict but rather complement each other. It was a very important point - the Protestant morality and educational pursuit of happiness together in novel. Modern non-religious consciousness can hardly understand the enthusiasm of the English village of Slough residents, who gathered on the eve of the smithy to listen to the reading 'Pamela' and when he reached her wedding, so glad that went to call the church bells.

. Virtue can prevail and obtain a reward even in this, the earth, life and its destiny should not be mere suffering and hope for justice beyond the grave
. The moral energy of a person is able to transform the world and bring him happiness! This was proved in 'Pamela' with such a household and psychological certainty, that was no doubt.

History Pamela described in the letters of the young heroine's parents, where she detailed, day by day report about everything that was happening to her. Pamela wrote, usually under the impression of a conversation or event, not knowing what awaits her on. Richardson thought he had found the narrative style is particularly suitable for, . to reveal the inner world of the heroine: it has Pamela resents, . justify their actions or worrying about the future, . Readers can look into her soul, and sometimes even see in it a, . what she herself is not aware of, . example, . that loves his master, . although in the heat of the struggle for his virtue and does not want me to admit it,

. Second, and admittedly most successful novel, Richardson's' Clarissa Harlow, . or the story of a young lady '(1747-1748) much bou-Lee soberly appreciates the social reality, . which seeks to nai-ti a new place puritanical personality, . moreover, . more complex and dramatically depicts the conflict of the main characters,
. At the beginning of the novel Clarissa - 16-year-old beauty, virtuous and well-educated, widely vaunted as the embodiment of perfection. World in grown rich and respectable bourgeois family Harlow violated when his grandfather, bypassing his father and brother Clarissa leaves her a large inheritance. A matchmaking brilliant aristocrat Lovelace adjusts to it, and older sister, whom he despised. Family denies Lovelace from home and demands that Clarissa gave her father the right to dispose of the inheritance and married a wealthy upstart Solms. Clarissa without hesitation agreed to the first, but refuses to marry: Solms - an insignificant man, without any moral rules, and swore him in obedience before the altar, she risks destroying his soul. Duty to God and is in conflict with the duty of an exemplary daughter, and Clarissa is in her parents' house on the situation of a rebel and captive. And forced to leave the family and take the patronage Lovelace deprives it of any public support, in which she could return, only having become the wife of this man.

. Thus begins the moral and psychological struggle of the hero and heroine, the struggle between two different world-view, two different principles of life, which constitutes the basic content of the novel
. There are four characters correspondence: Clarissa and her friend Anna Howe, Lovelace and his friend Belford. Richardson derives a special dramatic effect of the descriptions of the same scenes and events of Clarissa and Lovelace, which shows how much they are mistaken about the true nature of intentions and motives of each other. Brilliant cavalier, reckless duelist and irresistible conqueror of female hearts, fascinated Lovelace Clarissa, but the main thing in his love-hate her - lust to rule and subjugate her will. For this, he tricked the girl brings a cheerful house, which she at first takes a rooming house, she represents his imaginary relatives, intercepts and replaces her letters. Vain. Then he decided on the last desperate move, and subdue it by force, but the violence finally deprive him of power over Clarissa.

. Now she refuses to marry Lovelace, and rejected the new British society, dying like a Christian heroine, 'the Puritan saint', as it is sometimes called the criticism.

. Richardson's last novel, 'History of Sir Charles Grandison' (1753-1754), in contrast to 'Pamela' and 'Clarissa', built not on ostrodramaticheskom conflict between the two-name the main characters
. He represents the whole social environment, a large range of characters, whose problems in life and destiny are equally interesting for the reader. Sir Charles Gran-Dizon - the first perfect male image created by the novelist, which embodied a new social ideal of the gentleman. Richardson followed here views of contemporary philosophers and theologians of the liberal persuasion, especially Shaftesbury, with its notion of altruism, is characteristic of human nature. The main virtue Grandison - selflessness, ability to rise above their selfish interests and be guided in taking the decision, only the arguments of reason and the notion of fairness. This feature enables the hero successfully resolve any conflicts, . of the property to the love, . thereby instill in the reader's confidence, . that the social element is subject to man with solid moral principles, . that he holds the destiny in their hands.,

. But most of all attracted the reader in 'History of Sir Charles Grandison' ta, . in the words of U.S. scholar Margaret Doody, . 'domestic comedy of manners', . where due to the ideal of the hero was no place for intractable clashes, . tragic accident.,

. In his novels, Richardson appears to the reader as an expert on women's heart, a master of psychological analysis, the creator of the dramatic conflicts of love
. Probably, these qualities of his talent developed due to the fact that in life he had rather be an observer - a confidant, but not a hero of romance. In old age he remembered how for him, well-intentioned and humble apprentice, often turned young girls - his neighbor, asking them to write a letter to the Chevalier. And now, before it is revealed the heart of the beautiful and jerking doubts, jealousy, or tender feelings. Richardson was twice married and happily married, but both times, by his own admission a novelist, his choice of guided discretion and not a strong passion.

. Letters acquaintances saved us a portrait of Richardson's last decade of his life and image of the mansion Parsons Green, where he moved in 1754
. 'His villa is furnished in the same style in which his books were written. Each paid attention to the smallest detail, and everything is thought out so as to benefit or pleasure ... His house always see some young women, chatting with that educates and entertains his daughters while they are here reformat your health or safe haven from their affliction, and all (also in book style), call him daddy. Walking around the estate with him, I saw the faces of all households flashed sincere joy when he casually turned to him with some kind inquiries. "

. Novels Richardson instantly won not only English, but also the entire European reading public
. Sprung transcriptions, imitations, theatrical productions, as well as parodies of his works, the most famous of which 'Apology Shamely Mrs. Andrews' Fielding and 'Second Grandison' German writer Muzeusa.

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  • lisa for RICHARDSON Samuel
  • good time of day. by studying the work of the 18 Century Lit-ru Albion. Nowhere to find Richardson. impression that he was removed because of excessive love of romantic girls 19 century ... strange, after all, a classic. Do not publish? Help purchase or advise thanks
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