John Couch Adams (Adams John Couch)( English astronomer and mathematician.)
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Biography John Couch Adams (Adams John Couch)
Born June 5, 1819 in Laniste (Cornwall). He graduated from St. John's College, Cambridge University (1843). In 1843-1858 taught there, in 1858-1859 - Professor of Mathematics at Aberdeen University, 1859-1892 - Professor of Astronomy and Geometry at Cambridge University, at the same time since 1861 - Director of Cambridge Observatory.
Adams works relate to the field of celestial mechanics and mathematics. Analyzing the deviations in Uranus, he came to the conclusion that they are caused by the perturbing effect of an unknown planet, calculated the elements of its elliptical orbit, mass, and heliocentric longitude (1844-1845). Similar calculations were performed at about the same time, the French astronomer Leverrier Y.. Based on these data J. Galle at the Berlin Observatory in September 1846 opened a new planet called Neptune. Adams also owns a number of works on the theory of motion of the Moon. He clarified its position, given a new value of the secular acceleration. Calculated the orbit of Leonid meteor shower, taking into account the perturbation introduced by the planet, and showed that this flow has a cometary orbit.
Mathematical work of Adams connected with the tasks of celestial mechanics and focus on numerical integration of differential equations of motion. His method is still one of the key in this area.
Adams was president of the Royal Astronomical Society of London (1851-1853, 1874-1876), was awarded the gold medal of the society and the Copley Medal (1848). In 1848, Cambridge University, established Dzh.Adamsa Prize, awarded for outstanding work in physics, mathematics and astronomy. Adams died in Cambridge on Jan. 21, 1892.