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Rovinsky, Dmitry

( The well-known lawyer and statesman, scientist and researcher on the history of Russian life and history of art, an honorary member of the Academies of Sciences and Arts.)

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Biography Rovinsky, Dmitry
Son of the Moscow police chief, was born August 16, 1824. After graduating from the course in the School of Law, . began service in Moscow, . where successively held the posts of Secretary of the Senate, . Provincial Solicitor, . deputy chairman of the Criminal Court, . Provincial Prosecutor, . Attorney of the Chamber and Chairman of the Criminal Department of the Chamber,
. From 1870 until his death was (June 11, 1895) Senator Criminal Cassation Department. The period of service life F. before the judicial reform was extremely lively, . sensitive and strangers to the formalism of activities, . especially on the important post of provincial prosecutor, . significance of which he was able to raise very, . despite the difficulty of relations with autocratic and narrow "master of Moscow" - the Governor-General Earl Zakrevskii,
. Persistently seeking a possible material for truth and justice in decisions on criminal cases, . built sometimes with complete disregard of the living man, . in formal, . biased, . mechanically evaluate the evidence, . moreover, caught in the investigation by the ignorant and often self-serving police officials, . extorted suspected consciousness with the help of masked, . and sometimes explicit torture or languishing in the "bug-infested" and "graves" basements "private homes", . P,
. included in all and vigilant supervision, insistence and request, wherever possible, eliminate the flagrant abuse of contemporary forensic investigative order. A lot of it had to work and to improve the situation of prisoners in an environment where already finished shine the light of his loving hearts of Fedor Petrovich Haas, of which P. and at the end of his days remembered with affection. Heavy clashes with gr. Zakrevskii summoned intercession P. for the serfs at artificially inflated cases of disobedience of their landlords and even the manager, with cases of this nature was given recklessly "uprising", vlekshego to a prison and lashes. Trying to influence the young magistrate own example, P. warmly welcomed the publication in 1860, punishment for judicial investigators and admonished future investigators of Moscow Province, . gathered at the provincial prosecutor, . appeal "to be primarily people, . rather than bureaucrats, . serve, . rather than individuals, . rely on the law, . but explaining it is reasonable, . to do good and benefit, . and solicit one award - the good opinion of society ... "Assumptions about the need for judicial reform led him to a number of works, . contained the air of real knowledge of life and faith in the spiritual forces of the people criticizing the "general explanatory note" to the draft Criminal Justice Earl Bludova, . which proposed the gradual introduction of improvements to the existing judicial system and methods,
. Standing in the need for radical change in the past and finding it necessary to uproot from the Russian court life callous "attitude clerks" concealed "liberal scenery with high-sounding phrases and sayings criminal, P. provides the basis for a court order to put an already found out with the most attractive part of the world type of mediator and then, for more important matters, to create a jury. He first had the courage to clearly and straightforwardly put the question to this court, on a practical basis, engaging in combat with many individuals, respected in his position. Against the instructions on the alleged failure of the Russian people to distinguish the crime from the misfortunes of Rovinsky exhibited in its legal, historical and literary works of the deep difference between the compassion of the people to convict him and the alleged leniency of a crime,
. "People, . - He said, . - Looks with compassion on the offender, . have already been punished with lashes and sentenced to penal servitude and exile and, . forgetting all of his evil, . he is generous handouts belongings and money, and he spared the defendants, . stayed under court for years and decades to clear the ruin of his family and the state treasury, . but for that compassion should be more likely to recognize the people of profound moral dignity, . than to accuse him of lack of legal development ",
. Bright colors described P. various notes implementing the ruling we have until 1863 the system of penalties with careful seat, whips and rods, painting a dire, but the true features of the "green light". On negation in Russian man a sense of legitimacy, as a result of the jury supposedly will not see a crime where it sees the law, P. answered by pointing out, . that it is the court of public opinion, . transparent and universally respected, . should precede the legal development of society and the judges themselves, . because only in it people will learn the truth and cease to recognize some of the crimes of the most ordinary thing,
. Finally, . to fear, . that the jury would be incomprehensible to society and innovation does not find the bodies for himself in the face of prosecutors and defenders, . He objected to research on public participation and elected elements in the old Russian court, and extremely interesting observations and conclusions about the, . how to develop and what type of national characteristics to speak of future Russian prosecutors and lawyers,
. Called to St. Petersburg to participate in the commission of judicial transformation and seconded in 1863 to the State Chancellery, P. persistently and tirelessly pursued his view, . trying, . incidentally, . free production of a jury of unnecessary conditionalities, . reduce prosecutorial pipe bends, . excessive portion of the present jurors sworn in and even eliminate the production of the element of distrust and didacticism, . to which many were inclined towards the representatives of the public conscience,
. Some of the assumptions R. were carried out under the powerful indication of experience, only later. With a special love Rovinsky and worked to organize the world's Institute, . offering, . to raise it in the eyes of the population and for the immediate initiation of its organs to the central and local government, . take the honorable magistrates of the empire of Ministers of Justice and Home Affairs, . Members of the Council of State and Senators - all the time finding them in the position, . and the provinces - Governors, . marshal of the nobility and the chairpersons of the provincial zemstvo,
. In 1862, under his direction, was performed extensive forensic statistical work on gathering and developing information on the status of the judiciary in the provinces of the future of the Moscow Judicial District. Appointed Attorney of this county in 1866, P. with joyful energy set to the practical organization of a new business. They elected the first members of the Moscow prosecutor's office, from which came so many wonderful judicial figures. They were called in its ranks, among other things, the future Minister of Justice Manasein and known for his talent prosecutor Gromnitskaya. Performing along with their subordinates, prosecutorial duties, of any alien "generalcy and commitment to the edges, P. served as their example of dedication to favorite. The first steps of the new institutions could not do without inadvertent error, and society is not in all its layers treated them with compassion. There is an inherent conflict and strife, had to deal with secret malice and the apparent hostility of those whose power and influence met legal obstacles in the unusual activity of new institutions. Position of the first prosecutor of the Trial Chamber of the largest of the judicial districts were not only difficult, but also morally responsible before the future of the new court. And as a judge on the merits and judge of cassation, P. saved his life look at each case, which seemed to him, above all, domestic phenomenon with the individual color. Dead stranger to legal schemes, seeing all and above all a living person, P. introduced its responsiveness to the requests of worldly truth in the abstract field assessment appeals violations. The enemy of all the "bureaucracy", . of evasive, . uncertain and things to discuss, . He was brief and precise in their work, . unable, . however, . very detailed design issues, . when they were establishing a correct view of the serious relationship or offense,
. He worked tirelessly, with rare honesty, not avoiding or under any pretext dry and sometimes very tedious, painstaking work. During his senatorial career, he was always at his post, influencing colleagues independence and clarity of their everyday life and legal views. Having entered the Senate at the age when many are already dreaming about peace, he cheerfully set to work and reported 7825 cases, each of whom has their own written decision or resolution profiling. It was not easy for him, because next to the service of his favorite field of art there, where it attracted all his soul and where he rested mentally. In this area, he did much. One, . own work and through the large material sacrifices, . he collected and published a number of publications: "History of Russian school of icon painting", . "Russian engravers and their works", . "Dictionary of Russian engraved portraits", . "Russian engraver Chemesov (17 portraits), . "Russian folk painting", . "Credible portraits of Muscovy" (with 47 pictures), . "NN,
. Utkin. His life and works "(with 34 portraits and drawings)," Types of Solovetsky Monastery "(with 51 drawings)," Materials for Russian iconography "(12 issues, with 480 drawings)," Eleven engravings Berseneva "," FI. Jordan "," VG. Perov. His life and works ", . "Collection of satirical paintings", . "Complete Collection of prints by Rembrandt" (from 1000 photoengraving), . "Complete Collection of prints by Rembrandt pupils and masters, . worked in his manner "(with 478 photoengraving), . "A detailed dictionary of Russian engraved portraits",
. Moreover, they made a number of small publications, what are, for example, "Types of privislyanskih provinces", "Satirical rudimentary pictures 1812", "Embassy Sugorskogo" and other. First place among publications Rovinsky is "a detailed dictionary of Russian engraved portraits". It consists of 4 volumes in quarto, and is a precious monument to familiarize themselves with the art of engraving in general and in Russia in particular, . giving a description of portraits of 2000, . in any way attracted the attention of contemporaries and posterity,
. These descriptions, representing a record of each portrait with a mass of exact and minute technical details required, in view of 10 000 images, referred to in the book, striking in its persistence and perseverance of Labor. But for some fans of prints or research scholars of art history, these four volumes provide a wealth of material. At the 3086 columns of books, preparation of which one could fill a person's life, next to the diverse, sometimes beautiful photoengraving, are biographical notes, stories and instructions contemporaries. They contain a highly interesting historical and everyday materials, drawing and highlighting the many aspects of Russian life and its fate. Notes R. have no claim to completeness or to a specific system: it is for the most part, brief, live performance, brilliant mind, armed vast erudition and knowledge of. Condensed form of them gives them a special force and completely excludes any arbitrariness and studious pathos. Generally, in the writings of R. not the slightest trace of historical subservience, his reviews and ratings sound full sincerity. However, not all the notes of his brief. There are under this name the whole biographical sketches, which the selection of the "Dictionary" and the meeting together might make a full interest in the book. Such, for example, among other things, sketches the life and work of Alexander I, Catherine II, Dmitry the Pretender, and, in particular, Suvorov. This kind of sketches you can, perhaps, be reproached with excessive detail, beyond the "Dictionary". R. foresaw the possibility of such a reproach. The answer is contained in the indication of the attitude of the iconography of the history. "For us, the iconography, - he says - it's interesting to have no image of Catherine in vysokotorzhestvennoy pose a real, live Catherine, with all its advantages and disadvantages. We want to know every detail, which was surrounded by this great woman and want to know what time she got up, sat down to work when that drank and ate for dinner that evening did, how to dress and where she went. We have to just work, we want to know her private life, even to read her intimate little notes, we want to see her at home - a living, intelligent, cunning ... perhaps too passionate. From a brief acquaintance with all the details of items we are more, . than from any other Stories, . gained the conviction, . that the light of her home life did not have a relaxing effect on her royal task, . and even more to love this great woman for her boundless love for her new, . Russian fatherland ",
. - "Dictionary of engraved portraits" depicts the Russian people at various stages of the social ladder and in different historical epochs. But to complete the picture had to be the image of Russian life, it was necessary to collect no personal traits, and household, embodied in people's memory one way or another. This task was accomplished R. in another of his classic book - "Russian Folk Pictures", published in 1881, in 9 volumes, four of which enclose the 1,780 pictures, and five represent the explanatory text to them, at 2,880 pages in 8 large. In this edition, which demanded an extraordinary love to work, perseverance and knowledge, and moreover, the dual great sacrifices, P. collected all those popular pictures, which came out in the light until 1839, t. e. until such time when free people's artistic creativity was inserted into the framework of official censorship. In these pictures is a wide variety of parties, domestic and spiritual life of the people since the beginning of the XVII century to the middle of the XIX century. In naive images of national Russian man incisor is presented in its relations to the family, . to the world, . the teaching, . in his religious beliefs and poetic representations, . in his sorrows and joys, . in deeds and fall, . in sickness and entertainment,
. He is ahead of us alive, . speaking of himself, . its "red with the word", . fairy tales and legends, . peculiar, . powerful and simple-hearted, . patient and terrible in anger, . playful and at the same time in a thoughtful life and its hidden meaning, . with good-natured irony, looking at myself and everything around, . and majestically calm in the face of death,
. With regard to those or other people's paintings are shown in this work the whole detailed independent research, . extensive removal of the monuments of folk literature, . slender, . built on the rich sources and personal experience and study of domestic and ethnographic paintings,
. Who read it with attention-five volumes of text to people's pictures, one can say that in front of his eyes was not official, not external, but internal Russian life for more than two centuries, with all that was its essence. Love R. the art affected and published them in 1892 book "Vasily Perov. His life and works "consisting of a fine biography of the artist, written by NP. Sobko, and from 60 phototypes pictures Perov. For editions of any of the outstanding Russian artists of R. seemed a great choice. Such a publication could suppress the image of serious heart-rending scenes of military life, could caress the eyes graceful truthfulness in the transmission of spillovers of light on furs, . themes and decorations; could represent those genre scenes, . where "through the visible, invisible tears of laughter are heard, and where the deeply tragic creature enclosed in the framework of some everyday phenomena ..,
. But he did not dwell on these works of art brushes. The connoisseur, a connoisseur and researcher of folk life, he did not like anything screaming, showy or exclusive. Easy Russian life, in her usual, a modest flow, more attracted to him, because more simply and accurately reflect the nature of a Russian man. Zhivopisatelem just such a life was Perov. Its simple, guileless, full of aspirations for self-improvement nature, his modest life must have been keen to attract the attention and sympathy P. Even greater impact had to have at P. fiction Perov, . because they, . in a kaleidoscope of scenic, . runs daily, . not rich colors and impressions, . but close to the Russian heart dear life with her family joys and sorrows, . inevitable dramas, . characteristics and hobbies,
. - In the privacy of its R. was extremely original. Medium height, . broad, . with a large bald, . framed first reddish, . then gray curls, . living, . full of crazy eyes, . He was very active, . never, . except in cases of illness, . not traveled in a carriage, . lived in very humble circumstances, and dressed simply, and even poorly, . making fun of the passion of many "weight wrong" signs differences,
. In drawing up the legal statutes, . objecting to the defenders of the need to award ranks next Judiciary, . boded, . otherwise, . impoverishment of its, . He wrote: "If people are too ambitious, . lion for distinguishing signs, . would not seek judicial posts, . a judicial office can only gain from it ... ",
. People's life in all its manifestations, it is extremely interested in. For many years he has made great hiking journey along the country roads of Central and Eastern Russia, listening and watching. After the transition to the Senate, he has to go abroad and traveled everywhere: not only in Europe but also in Jerusalem, India, Egypt, Morocco, China and Japan, Ceylon and Java, Central Asia, and t. n. The thirst for knowledge and action has not dried up in him until his death, which befell him in Vildungene for charges after just postponed a major operation in Paris, to finish work on the etchings of Van Ostade. In the last years of his life have not been to the society and increasingly withdraws into himself, feeling the discord between his spiritual system and the decline of the ideals, manifested in the life of Russian society. All of their varied and rich collection of prints and art works he bequeathed to The Hermitage, . Rumyantsev Museum, . Public Library and the Academy of Fine Arts, the library - College of Law, Real Estate - Moscow University, . for the award for best illustrated book for popular consumption, the capital of 60 thousand rubles - to the device of public schools and the prize for the best essay on the art of archeology,
. п-.пг. Kony.

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