CAN YUVEY( Chinese thinker, philosopher, scientist, statesman and public figure, leader of the reformist movement in China at the turn of 19-20 centuries)
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Biography CAN YUVEY
Born March 19, 1858 in Nanhai County, Guangdong Province. Coming from an educated landowner-bureaucratic family traces its ancestry to the end of II millennium BC. and has 13 generations of scientists. Since childhood showed extraordinary mental ability. In the 11 years after the death of his father was in the custody of his grandfather, . Head of the regional department of education, . under whose leadership received a traditional education at home from 19 years studied with Zhu Tsytsi (1807-1881), . well-known expert and advocate of Neo-Confucianism School Tszyuyuanya Lou (1139-1193) - Wang Yangming (1472-1529); at age 21 after a long meditation sight in itself 'sovershennomudrie',
. From his early years studying classical Confucian and Neo-Confucianism combined with a deep interest in Buddhism and Western science.
In 1879 he first visited Hong Kong, and then began actively he studied literature on the West. In 1882 and 1888 failed to pass the exam on the second degree tszyuyzhen. In 1884-1885 created the basis of his main work Yes tong shu (Book of Great Unity), containing ideas konfutsianizirovannoy communist utopia, but for censorship reasons, decided not to publish. In 1888, as a volunteer Metropolitan Academy Gotszytszyan, sent the first (not reached the addressee) memorandum to the Emperor Te-tsung (Guangxu, rules 1875-1908) with the program of social reforms, involving the introduction of parliamentary
. In 1889 he returned to his native province of Guangdong, . which in 1891 published a book Xin Xue wei jing kao (Research false canons sinskogo exercises), . which opposed 'kanonovedcheskoy school texts of the old writing' (gu wen jing Xue) and its leading representative of Liu Hsin (58 BC,
. - 23 AD), which Xin Dynasty (AD 8-25) has made a formal recognition of their version of the canonical Confucian texts, written in 'old writing', ie. hieroglyphics utilized to reform written in the Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC). Proving the fake nature of the canons in the version of the old school texts written, . or 'sinskogo teaching', . Kang Yuvey acted as an apologist to resist it 'kanonovedcheskoy school texts of new writing' (jin wen jing Xue), . which was based on the Confucian canon, . written by a reformed hieroglyphics,
. At the root of the teachings of this school was Tung Chung-shu (2. BC), it found continuing in the work of Ho Hsiu (2.), in 18. it revived Zhuang Tsunyuy (1719-1788), in the 19. Liu developed the first Fenlu (1776-1829), Lin Tszesyuy (1785-1850), Gong Tszychzhen (1792-1841), Wei Yuan (1794-1856), and then Liao Ping (1852-1932) and Kang Yuvey.
According to the latest, Confucius was not pereskazchikom sovershennomudryh views of the ancient and original social philosopher and founder of a new religion, ie. not just sage, . but holy, . 'uncrowned king' (dry van), . set 'sovershennomudry law of change of government' (gai zhi zhi sheng fa), . reflected in the canons, . written 'new inscriptions', . But Liu was falsified in favor of the Blue usurper Wang Manu, . founded dynasty Xin false,
. In these constructions, the specific textual combined with a free image of Confucius in the spirit of reformist ideology of the Kan Yuveya. Official circles embraced the book as seditious publications and made imperial decree to publicly burned by order of the printed board with its text and to prohibit its distribution. Similar decrees were issued in 1892 and 1900, resulting in a second time she saw the light only in 1917. Next book Kahn Yuveya, reconstructed 'true' Confucianism as protoreformatorstvo Kun-tzu gai zhi kao (Study [exercises] Confucius change of government) was written in 1892, but also waiting for publication until 1913
. In 1891, the capital of Guangdong Province and the largest city in southern China's Guangzhou (Canton) Kang Yuvey created a private school where the teaching of Confucian disciplines combined with Buddhism, Taoism, natural and human sciences of the West
. In 1893 he earned a second degree tszyuyzhen. In 1895, . arrived in Beijing to sit for examinations at higher degree of Jinsha, . He headed the country's defeat provoked the Sino-Japanese war of 1894-1895 the movement gathered in the capital of more than 1200 tszyuyzheney, . have given the Emperor written by Kang Yuveem and his disciples Tsichao Liang (1873-1923) and May Menhua (1875-1916) a collective memorandum of 10 000 words of proposed reforms, . which included, . particularly, . involvement in the service of overseas Chinese, . living abroad, . transfer of capital from Beijing in the more ancient Xian, . Issue state bank of paper money, . minting of small coins, . establishment of a public postal system, . transformation of Confucianism in a full nationwide and the establishment of religion under the emperor elected deliberative body,
. In 1895, . received the degree of Jinsha and became clerk in the Order of Public Works in Beijing, . Kang Yuvey began to publish only in the capital informal Chinese-language newspapers and organized a political club 'Society of the science of enhancing [the state]' (Qiang Xue hoy),
. However, in the same 1895 this activity was prohibited, and Kang Yuvey was forced to return to the pedagogical work in the province. In 1898 he resumed his political activity based in the capital, first with his fellow Kwantung Guangdong Scientific Society (Xue Yue Hoi), and then All-China Society of the State (Bao th Khoi). Defending the thesis 'Change - is the way (dao) of the sky', . Kang Yuvey in reports to the Sovereign (and there have been seven) had recommended to repeat the experience of the Japanese 'Meiji Revolution' (1867-1868) and the reforms of Peter I, . Having devoted the last special piece - Directional up preliminary note on the administrative reform of Russia's [King] Peter the Great (Jin-cheng Elos Yes bidet bian cheng chi hsu),
. Among them been worked ambitious reconstruction projects the Middle Kingdom was the plan of resettlement of Chinese in Brazil to the base of where the New China
. After two hours the audience June 16, 1898 Te-tsung appointed Kang Yuveya seconded Secretary General Directorate of Foreign Affairs with the right to directly report to the emperor, and adopted his proposal, . reflect them in the decree "On Establishing the main line of the state [policy] '(Min Din th shek), . launching the brief period of 'a hundred days of reform' (11 June - 20 September 1898),
. Kang Yuvey intended to abolish the traditional system of examinations for degrees, . create a university in Beijing and Western-style schools in the province, . establish the adoption of state budget, . to modernize the Army and Navy, . transformation of administrative systems and other,
. End of the reform efforts put betrayal General hushing Yuan (1859-1916) and a palace coup of the Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908), who placed Te-tsung, under house arrest and usurped power. Kang Yuveyu sentenced to death, managed to escape with the help of the British in Hong Kong. Six other leaders of the party of reform, including Tan Sytun (1865-1898) and his brother Kang Kang Yuveya Yupu (1867-1898), were executed without trial in September of that year.
The next sixteen years Caen Yuvey spent in exile, wandering the world. Continuing hopes on Te-tsung, in 1899 in Canada, he founded the Party of the protection of the emperor (Bao Huang Dan). After the overthrow of the empire in 1911, Kahn Yuvey played for its restoration on a constitutional basis and participated in the failed attempt at restoration in 1917 and 1924. Published in 1915 draft the first constitution of the Republic of China proclaimed the institutionalization of Confucianism as the state religion, but the constitution was not adopted. At the end of his life, he was deserted, and the disappointment of the failure of the grandiose plans he wanted to renounce the world in the 'heavenly journey' (Tian yu), but died of food poisoning in Qingdao, Shandong Province March 31, 1927.
The main problem, on which all life beating Kahn Yuvey and has become a stumbling block for all Chinese thinkers of the late 19 - early 20 centuries., Is the modernization of the country while maintaining its cultural identity. Trying to solve this problem, . Kang Yuvey searching for analog Western theories of social progress in the classical Confucian literature, . resulting in the main type of creativity for him was comments: Chun-Qiu Dong-Shi Xue (Doctrine of Mr. Tung [Chung-shu] of 'Spring and Autumn'), . Chung Yong Zhu (Commentary on 'Middle and unchanging'), , . Li yun zhu (Commentary to [chapter] 'The circulation of decency' [ 'Notes on decency']), . Meng-tzu wei (Subtleties 'Mencius') and other,
Main theoretical work of Kahn Yuveya - Book of the great unity (Da Tong Shu, 1884-1902) in the 19. remained known only to a narrow circle of associates of the author and was published only after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 (in part - in 1913, and completely - after the death of the author, 1935). Gives its name to book a utopian vision of society of the Great Unity (da tong) Kang Yuvey borrowed from Chapter 9 Li Yun (Circulation decency or effectiveness of the ritual) of the Confucian canon, Li Ji (Notes on decency), . in which he saw 'the essence of the great teachings of Confucius',
. This text, . the origin of which the researchers attributed not only to Confucianism, . but with Taoism, . moizmom and other philosophical schools of ancient China, . mouth of Confucius describes the two states of society: the old ideal - great unity: "When there were great dao, . Celestial Empire belonged to everybody 'and modern acceptable - Small prosperity (Hsiao Kang):' Now, . When the Great Tao is hidden, . Celestial Empire belongs to [individual] families', . - Which is usually interpreted as opposed to the idea of universal equality and supplies all of, . one hand, . and separation of the world - with the other,
. Kang Yuvey identified, . that the 'Way' (dao) of the Great Unity of the society is 'the circulation of humanity' (jen yun), . a 'through' Small prosperity of society - 'the circulation of decency' (Do yun), . and in the latter state, China abides by the time of Confucius, . more than two thousand years,
This concept Kahn Yuvey connected with going from the Mencius (4-3 cc. BC), Tung Chung-shu, the school texts of new writing, traditions Gunyan Zhuan (Commentary Gunyana [to 'Chun Qiu'], 5-2 cc. BC) and formulated Ho Hsiu historiosophical doctrine of the three stages of development of society. In accordance with the traditional Chinese worldview, . representing the world as the space-time continuum, . This doctrine of implied correlation of stages of changes in time and space: 'For the period Stays in the chaos (Ju Luan) is a separate domestic [Chinese] state, . and external - the whole of China, the era of climbing up to the equilibrium (sheng pin) is internally the whole of China, . and external - the barbarian [environment]: the era of the Great balance (tai ping) is far and near, . great and small are united '(Lun yu zhu),
Kang Yuvey interpreted the text as a description of Lee Uni ternary cycle of involution from the era of the Great balance in the 'golden age' of antiquity, when there were great Tao, ie. carried 'path' of the Great Unity, to the era of boom to equilibrium during the first three dynasties (23-8 cc. BC), reigned as 'path' Small appeasement, and, finally, to the era Stays in the chaos during the life of Confucius (6-5 cc. BC), when there was also a small appeasement. Kang Yuveya pioneering achievement has been the transformation of the traditional sequence of evolutionary involutional, . under which the epoch Stays in chaos, . still dominant on the ground, . must come a boom to the era of balance, . to which came closest to Europe and America, . then an even more distant future, and will be followed by the era of the Great balance with a corresponding change in the Small prosperity on the great unity of the world,
. With each of the eras in the evolutionary sequence was related, and certain social order: autocracy, constitutional monarchy, a democratic republic.
However, the term 'three times' (san shi) was a Kahn Yuveya and the most common methodological sense, like 'two models' (liang s) - the yin and yang, or 'five elements' (y sin). In each of the eras distinguished by the same ternary cycle, as well as in each phase of the latter and so on, resulting in a number of possible design elements throughout historiosophical subordinated progression: 3, 9, 81, ... ? Showing unlimited development and after the onset of the Great balance, together with the great unity. In accordance with the double meaning of 'era - the world', . inherent characters 'shi' of terminology binomial 'san shi', . This differentiation is conceived as a temporary, . and in the spatial dimension, . and the second of them illustrated by the existence within a progressive American wild Indians, . and inside the civilized Chinese primitive tribes of the Miao, . Yao, . Chuang and whether,
. The basis of the ideal of 'the liberation of humanity from suffering and achieve the supreme happiness' in the great unity, . correlation and with russoistskim concept of natural law (Tian yu jen chih chuan), . with English utilitarianism, . and the Buddhist concept of suffering, . picture of the world, . free from state, . Race, . class, . Estates, . family, . sexual and other barriers; about Celestial, . jointly owned all of its inhabitants, . not a single ruler or his clan, to elect the wise and worthy of all leadership positions, . and not to transfer their inheritance; about equality and independence, . mutual non-interference and the prohibition of murder and war between people and nations,
. In this ideal state was assumed even the satisfaction of physical desire immortality, although earlier Kang Yuvey announced the immortality of one of the causes of suffering.
The first steps towards the establishment of the Great Unity could be a voluntary altruistic acts such as denial of inheritance rights to property, voluntary contributions to public needs and so. The onset of the Great Unity should be marked by the establishment of world government, the introduction of a common international language, the abolition of private property and the replacement of the family temporary marriage agreements. In the religious field was assumed the prevalence of Buddhism in the gradual withering away of all other religions as a neglect corporeality, despise women or illustrating the socio-economic differences between people.
Kang Yuvey believed that in many worlds in the universe alien men and women living a life similar to Earth. The theoretical basis for this belief, and belief that all born on the Earth - uterine brothers, is a fundamental Confucian idea of the universe edinotelesnosti. Following his ecumenical setting and bringing him to achieve a modern Western science, . Kang Yuvey transformed this idea in the thesis of a single space substance - air (tsi1), . which marks an organic connection between man and other people and nature, . manifesting itself in him as a sense of compassion, . and that the West is called ether,
. Subtle form of air - the spirit (shen1) Kang Yuvey identified with electricity
. Total construction Kan Yuveya were far from realization, . because the Conservatives seemed too radical, . and radical - too conservative, . but nevertheless they influenced the development of utopian thought, . and also contributed to the integration of traditional Chinese culture in dialogue with the West.,