Karl XI( The King of Sweden)
Comments for Karl XI
Biography Karl XI
The only son of Charles X and Hedwig Eleonora Holstein, born in Stockholm on November 24, 1655. Since 1660, when Charles, being four years old, ascended the Swedish throne, and until 1672, when Charles was 17 years, Sweden was ruled by regents, including the mother of Charles
. Deceived with promises of Louis XIV, Sweden became embroiled in the Dutch War 1672-1678 on the side of France
. However, June 28, 1675 Swedish troops, . commanded KG Wrangel, . suffered a crushing defeat at Ferbelline (50 km north-west of Berlin) by Friedrich Wilhelm, . Elector of Brandenburg (nicknamed the Great Elector), . resulting blshuyu Sweden has lost some of its holdings in Germany,
. Since the military prestige of the country fell in 1676, Denmark decided to attack her, but Karl was faced with the task of forming a new army, which had to be solved at the same time forcing the enemy out of the country. After a series of setbacks in the sea and a few defeats in Germany, Karl was able to achieve victories over the Danish Army in the battles of Lund in 1676 and in Malmo in 1677, thus ending the further plans of conquest of Denmark. Under the peace treaty concluded in Nijmegen in 1678-1679, Sweden did not have to give in Denmark, and at Saint-Germain treaty in 1679, it had returned all but Stettin (sovr. Szczecin), the territory of Pomerania. In 1680, Karl strengthen friendly relations with Denmark, married a Danish princess Ulrika Eleonora. Later he spent a peaceful foreign policy, devoting himself mainly to domestic political reforms and changes that are implemented with the help of two prominent public figures, Johan Yyullensherny and Bengt Oksensherny.
To strengthen public finances and to replenish the empty treasury, in 1680, Karl revived TN. 'reduction', imposed by his father in order to force the aristocracy to return the state handed out in the previous reign, starting with Gustav Vasa, crown lands. In 1680 the Riksdag had parted with their powers, which made Charles an absolute monarch, and delivered to Sweden from the dominance of tax-exempt aristocrats, allowing Charles to preserve freedom and independence ploughmen (bnder). Restoring the army and navy, encouraging the development of trade, Karl returned the old Swedish security and prosperity. He led the reform in all spheres of governance, expanding the educational system (for example, founded the university in Lund), was a patron of art and science. Charles died in Stockholm on April 5, 1697.