John Milton (Milton John)( The great English poet.)
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Biography John Milton (Milton John)
Born Dec. 9, 1608 in London, the son of a prosperous notary, an amateur musician, a man of versatile educated.
In 1625 sixteen Milton entered Christ's College, Cambridge University, which was to culminate in a while a bachelor's degree and then Master of Arts. And in both cases were required to take holy orders. After painful reflection Milton decided to abandon the ecclesiastical career. In the twenty-four years, he left Cambridge and went to his father's estate Horton (County of Buckinghamshire), where he spent six years.
From written six years, at least four poetic works of Milton secured a place in the annals of English poetry. L'Allegro (Italian. 'joyful') and Il Penseroso (Italian. 'thoughtful', written probably about. 1632) - small idyll, exploring the polar temperaments; Komus (Comus, 1634) - 'Mask', ie. half-drama, in 1637, Milton wrote a pastoral elegy in memory of university friend Lyusidas (Lycidas).
Komus and Lyusidas - the most striking examples of early works of Milton. In the first work by a magical force resists the temptations of chastity. The second is devoted not so much the death of E. King, how many arguments about the pastoral vocation. In Lyusidase affects the ability of Milton in poetry with a powerful syntax and rich melodies from line to line to withstand the general mood.
Seven years of college followed by six years of self-employment in Horton is not quenched the thirst for knowledge in the soul of Milton, and with the blessing of his father, in early 1638 he went to a two-year tour of Europe. Rumors of an imminent civil war in 1639 prompted his hasty return to England. After written in Latin elegy Epitaphium Damonis (lat. Epitaph for Damon) in memory of comrades with whom he studied at St. Paul's, cheekbones and the University of Cambridge, Milton opened a private school in Saint-Braydz-Cherchyard for his nephews, John and Edward Phillips. Soon, however, was dragged more pressing problems. In 1641 he published his first prose pamphlet - a treatise on the Reformation in England (Of Reformation in England). In the same year in the light went out treatises on episcopal dignity higher priesthood (Of Prelatical Episcopacy) and censure for the protection of persuader (Animadversions upon the Remonstrant's Defence), . Then followed reasoning about the management of the Church (The Reason of Church Government, . 1641-1642) and the justification Smektimnuusa (An Apology for Smectymnuus, . 1642),
In the summer of 1642, Milton was resting for a month, near Oxford (of these places there is its genus) and returned home with his bride, nee Mary Powell. In her family were all convinced royalist, Milton is a puritan, and consequently, an opponent of the existing monarchy. He was 33 years, she - 16. A month later the newly formed Ms. Milton asked to visit their parents and obtain consent of spouse absence without leave for two months. Her husband she returned in the summer of 1645.
In 1645-1649 Milton away from public affairs. Biographers believe that he was busy pondering and gathering materials for the History of Britain (History of Britain) or worked on generalizing treatise on Christian doctrine (Of Christian Doctrine). But in 1649 was the case, violates asceticism Milton. On the last day of January 1649 prinarodno execution of Charles I; less than two weeks, as Milton in the press with pamphlets and duties of the sovereign government (The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates). Under these circumstances, presentations were extremely sharp and was not as into the hands of the Radical Party. In March 1649, Milton is appointed by the Secretary for correspondence in foreign languages at the State Council.
By the end of 1649 the indignant reactions to the execution of Charles in Europe sounded louder, and it took a new clear and convincing justification of regicide. Milton wrote in Latin, apology for the execution of three of the King: The protection of the British people (Defensio pro populo Anglicano, 1651), Re-protection (Defensio secunda, 1654) and justification for itself (Defensio pro se, 1655). Undoubtedly, the 1650-ies became for him a decade of dismal, disaster followed an almost unbroken succession. In February 1652 he became blind, his birth in May, the third daughter of Deborah's wife died. In June, before the age of years, died the only son of John. At the end of 1656, Milton married Catharina Woodcock, in early 1658 she died. Meanwhile, both political and religious affairs in the country were, in terms of Milton, could not have worse. Revolution, designed to give birth to an enlightened and free republic, turned into a dictatorship. Church split into warring factions. For squabbles of political and religious parties implicitly, but the ever-growing thirst for return under the authority of the new monarch - Carl Stuart.
Despite his blindness, Milton until 1655 served as Secretary of the State Council through the reader, assistants, copyists. Following the resignation was followed by another blank interval of four years. And when it became clear that the revolution has failed and on the verge of Restoration, Milton published three bold and very outspoken in support of the pamphlet Cause. A Treatise on the participation of civil authority in the affairs of the church (A Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes) and considerations regarding the appropriateness of methods for removal of mercenaries from the Church (Considerations Touching the Likeliest Means to Remove Hirelings out of the Church) were printed in 1659, . a fast and easy way to establish a free republic (The Ready and Easy Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth) in February 1660, . the very eve of the Restoration,
Accession of Charles II was a disaster for Milton. At some time he has been imprisoned, even his life was in danger, but the efforts of friends, especially A. Marvell, in his time who had served in the state of Milton's assistant, and in 1660-ies who represented Hull in Parliament, he was soon released freedom.
The subject of Paradise Lost (Paradise Lost, 1667) accurately determined in the first three lines of the poem. Milton tells us that he intends to sing
. On the first preslushanii, the fruit
. Unlawful, harmful, that death brought
. And all our troubles in this world (?)
. (Translation A. Steinberg)
. True, the man appears in the poem only in the second half of Book IV
. All this time on the scene almost Satan reigns supreme. For this reason, the criticism in the early 19. believed to be Satan as the hero of the poem. However, the heroism of this character, though undeniable, but limited, is, ultimately, the triumph of the heroism of Christ and Adam. In the last part of the poem Satan is humiliated, and that's what Adam responds to its decline other than Satan, can be considered beneficial Fall event.
Paradise Lost is richly decorated with renderings of subjects of classical antiquity, metaphors, echoes of Scripture, figures of speech, rhetorical patterns, metrical jumble, allegorical images, puns, rhymes, and even implicit. Choice words, . Grammar, . word order is sometimes Latinized, . tone of the narrative - the sublime and solemn, . as befits epic, . without the psychological nuances, . vernacular inflections and living conversational turns, . admissible in lyric and dramatic poetry,
While the return of Paradise (Paradise Regained, 1671) and is often reputed to be an extension of Paradise Lost, in fact it is completely independent work, and the poem is almost unrelated to each other. If Paradise Lost - sample lengthy epic, then returned paradise - sample compressed epic.
Samson-wrestler (Samson Agonistes, 1671), like Komusе█, another attempt to Milton in the drama genre, though it is rather a poem to read, rather than to stage a drama on stage. Be that as it may, Samson wrestler worthy of completing the literary path to Milton's characteristic of his work and his life daring note heroic energy and inflexibility.
Milton died in London on November 8, 1674.