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Palmerston, Henry John Temple

( British statesman.)

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Biography Palmerston, Henry John Temple
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Born in Brodlendz (Hampshire County) October 20, 1784, belonged to an ancient race. In 1723, Henry Temple, as a reward for their loyalty and support of Sir Robert Walpole and the Whigs won the title of Baron Temple of Mount Temple (County Sligo) and Viscount Palmerston of Palmerston (County Dublin), as well as the title of an Irish peer. The title passed to his grandson, also named Henry (1739-1802), who for 40 years was a member of the House of Commons, was a famous traveler and collector.
His eldest son, Henry John, who accompanied their parents on a long journey to Europe in 1792-1794, during which easily mastered French and Italian. Five years Palmerston held in Harrow, three years - in Edinburgh, where he studied under the guidance of the famous philosopher and supporter of the Whigs Dyugalda Stewart. He was educated at Edinburgh University and St John's College at Cambridge University in 1803-1806. After his father died April 16, 1802 received the title of the third Viscount Palmerston. Mother Palmerston died in 1805, and his guardian was James Harris, First Earl of Malmesbury, a famous British diplomat sent to the political interests of the young Palmerston to William Pitt the Younger and Dzh.Kanningu. However, the influence of his father remained the most powerful. Despite the fact that the first 20 years of his political career, the third Viscount supported the Tories and served in the Conservative government, he later (1830) moved to the position of the Whigs and became the personification of the Whig aristocrat-18.

Not being British, and Irish peer, Palmerston was not a member of the House of Lords, and could be elected to the House of Commons. After two failed attempts to get its place on Pitt's University of Cambridge, was first elected to the House of Commons in 1807 from Newport (Isle of Wight) after it became an official of the Admiralty at the Cavendish. Subsequently, he was a member of parliament from the University of Cambridge (1811-1831), southern Hampshire and Tivertona. In 1809 he was offered the post of Minister of Finance. On the advice of Malmesbury Palmerston rejected the proposal, but agreed to the post of Minister of War, who served until 1829. In 1828 Palmerston broke with the then Prime Minister A. Wellington, delivered two major speeches - on the emancipation of Catholics and British foreign policy, and called for reform of the electoral system.

In 1830 Palmerston led supporters of reformist government Dzh.Kanninga C. Gray, in which he became Minister of Foreign Affairs. In its policy, he firmly adhered to three principles: the maintenance of power and prestige of the United Kingdom, the balance of forces in Europe and the establishment - where possible - the liberal government and constitutional monarchy. He has been configured and against absolutism, and against the violent popular revolutions. Through these principles, Palmerston was charged with 'gun diplomacy', gross interference in the affairs of other states, intimidation of ambassadors and intemperance and offensive behavior. He heartily hated abroad, but he enjoyed extraordinary popularity in his own country. The first phase of its activities in this post lasted until 1841 with a short break in 1834-1835, then was continued in the government Melborna U.. When Palmerston was established constitutional regimes in Greece, Portugal and Belgium, although only the last of them was strong. He also maintained the integrity of Turkey, prevented the seizure of the Dardanelles, Russia. Opposed French influence in the eastern Mediterranean, . applying the 'diplomacy of force', . which brought victory at the last moment, . when British forces defeated the Egyptian Pasha Muhammad Ali (1840), . revolted against the Sultan,
. Palmerston, supported the desire of the Italian states to unite in their fight against the Austrians thirty years, contributed to mitigating the vassal of Poland from Russia, Austria and Prussia, but these attempts were not successful. He also fought for the abolition of the slave.

The government Dzh.Rassela in the 1846-1851 activities Palmerston compounded the deterioration of relations with Queen Victoria, which is under the influence of the Prince Consort Albert defended the rights of their relatives - European monarchs. Forced consent with sharp remarks Palmerston to the French King Louis Philippe at the marriage of his son with the Spanish Infanta, . heir of her sister Queen of Spain, . and supporting its efforts, . aimed at establishing a constitutional confederation of Switzerland, . Queen at the same time questioned almost all the steps the Minister for Foreign Affairs, . whether for the uprising in Sicily, . speeches about the Constitution in Spain and Portugal, . War, King Charles Albert of Piedmont against the Austrians or the manifestation of despotism in Greece,
. She constantly complained about Palmerston, who sent telegrams, not waiting for its approval, and three officially demanded that he was relieved of his duties. In 1850, he saved himself from ostavki brilliant speech in the House of Commons - About the Roman citizenship. Great interest was Palmerston's thesis is that, wherever they are a British citizen, he is entitled to protection by their State. Nevertheless, one year later, . February 1851, . He was relieved of his duties at the request of the Queen, . which came in a rage after, . in conversation with the French ambassador Palmerston praised the coup d'etat of Napoleon III,

Palmerston was too popular and influential, to remain long out of business. In 1853 he was appointed interior minister in the coalition government of Aberdeen. In 1854 he supported Britain's participation in the Crimean War. In 1855, became prime minister and held this post until his death, with a break in 1858-1859, when the Tories were in power. In domestic policy, he did not consider it necessary to continue the electoral reform. In foreign policy, when it happened the expansion of British influence in Persia and China, control the Austrian and French claims in Italy. Palmerston has a policy of neutrality during the Civil War in the United States, although he personally sympathized with Southerners. In the elections of 1865, received a large majority, he again became prime minister. He died in Palmerston Broketa Hall (Hertfordshire County) October 18, 1865.

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