Trery Marquess of Salisbury (Salisbury Third Marquess of)( British statesman, Prime Minister of Great Britain.)
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Biography Trery Marquess of Salisbury (Salisbury Third Marquess of)
Born February 3, 1830 in Hatfield (Hertfordshire County), was named by Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil. Cecil was a frail child and was unable to complete a full course of study at a private school and then at Eton. After graduating from Oxford University, was framed in a trip around the world, visited South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. As Lord Robert Cecil was a member of the House of Commons unopposed in 1853. However, during the 10 years he has increasingly played the role of a writer than as a policy. For the first time took up the post in the government in 1866 as Minister of State for India, but resigned the following year, when the Reform Bill became law. He had serious disagreements with the leaders of the Conservative Party - Lord Derby and Benjamin Disraeli on the issue of granting voting rights to a broader range of citizens.
In 1868, after the death of his father, Salisbury became a member of the House of Lords. In 1874 Disraeli, who became prime minister, persuaded him to enter the office, first as Minister of India, and then - Minister of Foreign Affairs. Here Salisbury made its first contribution to European policy, . contact April 1, 1878 with the famous circular letter to the five 'great powers' (Germany, . Russia, . Austria, . France, . Turkey), . which insisted, . that differences, . arisen between Russia and Turkey, . should be resolved by the International Congress,
. This congress was held in Berlin (Berlin Congress) under the chairmanship of Bismarck, the decisions of Congress to limit the influence of Russia on the Balkans.
In 1880 the Conservative Party was defeated in the elections, and when the Conservatives returned to power in 1885, Salisbury became Prime Minister (Disraeli died in 1881). His premiership lasted until the end of 1885, when a few months came to power and Gladstone, but he, in turn, suffered a severe defeat on the issue of home rule for Ireland in 1886, and Salisbury once again became prime minister (1886-1892). During this period, the overwhelming importance were questions of colonial policy, and Salisbury, informal support penetration in Africa, the British researchers, traders and missionaries. However, . when all this activity has been challenged by other European powers, . especially France, . Germany and Portugal, . Salisbury officially confirmed the British claim, . and extensive areas of western, . eastern and central Africa came under the control of Great Britain,
. In domestic policy, Salisbury put education under state control, and held an important act of the Local Government 1888.
In 1892, total victory for the Liberal Party, but the elections in 1895 won overwhelmingly won the Conservatives, Salisbury again became prime minister and remained in that post until his retirement in 1902. By this time he became one of the key figures in European politics, the more so in 1890 Bismarck was dismissed by Wilhelm II. As during his previous prime minister, Salisbury, in addition to the post of prime minister was the Minister of Foreign Affairs. His aim was to establish a European 'consent', and he managed to achieve that in those years in Europe, there were no serious international conflict. However, in foreign policy, he barely managed to prevent the war after the atrocities of the Turks against Armenians, . and in 1898 Britain and France nearly went to war, . When Lord Kitchener led the Egyptian troops to occupy the second Sudan - only to, . to discover the French scientist, . encountered camp in the village of Fashoda in the upper reaches of the Nile,
In addition, in 1895 the intention of the Americans to enforce the Monroe Doctrine in pogranichenom dispute between Venezuela and British Guiana have caused serious response both in Britain and the U.S.. Salisbury offered to arbitration and to form a neutral commission. President Cleveland at first refused to recognize its authority, but in the end the Anglo-American Arbitration Commission, headed by a neutral chairman, visited the disputed area in 1899, and its verdict was accepted by both parties. In the same year, Salisbury resumed friendly relations with Portugal, . counteract the effect of the agreement (signed by A. Balfour, . which in the absence of Salisbury Acting Minister of Foreign Affairs) with Germany to recover some of the Portuguese colonies of Britain and Germany, . if Portugal does not comply with its obligations under the loan, . they gave her,
. He has successfully coped with the crisis in the Far East, where the winter 1897-1898, Russia seized two Chinese ports.
In 1899 in South Africa, an acute conflict between Britain and the Boer republics of Transvaal and the Orange on uitlenderah - the majority of British migrants who have been deprived of political rights. Salisbury requested to negotiate on this matter to the Colonial Dzh.Chemberlenu, and the outbreak of the Anglo-Boer War. The Prime Minister was disappointed, but his minister SUPPORT. In 1900 he dissolved the House of Commons, but in the ensuing election won with a significant advantage. The new office, he handed over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the hands of Lord Lansdouna, stayed on as prime minister before the signing of a peace treaty with the Boers in 1902. Salisbury approved an agreement with Japan, for which negotiations had Lansdoun, and signed it in the beginning of 1902. However, he disagreed with the proposals Lansdouna a similar treaty with Germany.
Salisbury died Aug. 22, 1903. Salisbury's successor as prime minister was his nephew, Arthur Balfour.