WILLIAM Wickam (William of Wykeham)( Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor of England)
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Biography WILLIAM Wickam (William of Wykeham)
Born in Wickam (Hampshire) in a simple family. As an administrator supervised the construction and reconstruction of a number of castles of Edward III; as a churchman Wickam - a typical example of the contemporary higher clergy, . the service of the Crown, as a politician (though not always successful), he was at the center of the era, but most of all he is remembered as the founder of two educational institutions - the New College at Oxford and Winchester College,
Probably in 1347 Wickam entered the service of Edward III. Since 1356, he - inspector king of the castles in various works, special mention should be working, which he spent in Windsor. In 1360 Wickam was a mediator in the negotiations on the conclusion of peace in Bretigny, 4 years later he became the keeper of the royal press. His office rewarded with promotion of the steps of the church hierarchy: in 1366 led Lincoln Wickam arhidiakonstvo, had 11 canonical sites (or prebend), and the arrival. The appointment Wickam Bishop of Winchester reported that 'papa is rarely so reluctant to agree with such a choice of King'. Nevertheless Wickham distinguished himself as an active bishop.
First chancellorship Wickam coincided with the resumption of the Hundred Years War with France. Lost in the war and general anti-clerical sentiment in 1371 led to his resignation, . and in 1376 at the insistence of his son King John (John) Gaunt his work as Chancellor was the subject of discussion at the Great Cathedral, . that ordered the confiscation of church properties and income Wickam,
. In 1381 Wickam reconciled to the shingle, in the reign of Richard II of his involvement in politics has been reduced considerably, although later he was still two years was chancellor - once in 1389, Richard was able to free themselves from the tutelage of Lords, the appellants.
1369 Wickam bought land for his college in Oxford; to 1373, he hired a teacher to conduct lessons in Winchester, in 1376 placed 70 pupils in the building of New College. Opala in 1376 slowed the case, but in 1380 he began to build in Oxford, and in 1387 - in Winchester. Its projects are largely defined the architecture of the British colleges, and introduced ordinances he influenced the development of colleges and public schools in England. Creating a school in Winchester, which was to let the future students of Oxford, was one of the most important events in the history of education in England. In the ten years before his death Wickam was restored Winchester Cathedral. Died Wickam in Bishops-Waltham (near Southampton) on 27 September 1404.