Heinrich Schliemann (Schliemann Heinrich)( German archaeologist.)
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Biography Heinrich Schliemann (Schliemann Heinrich)
Born in Noybukove (Mecklenburg-Schwerin) January 6, 1822. At age 14, enrolled the boy in a grocer's shop in Furstenberg, was forced to leave work for health. Hired as cabin boy on a ship en route from Hamburg to Venezuela, however, near the Dutch island of Texel ship wrecked. So Schliemann found himself in Holland. In Amsterdam, a messenger came in a trading company and soon became an accountant. Schliemann carried away in foreign languages and has reached proficiency in Dutch, English, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Russian languages.
After Schliemann had studied Russian language, in January 1846 he was sent to Petersburg, where he started his own business and married a Russian. In 1850-ies visited the United States and took American citizenship. In 1858-1859 traveled to Italy, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Turkey and Greece, in 1864, visited Tunisia, Egypt, India, Java, China and Japan, in 1866 settled in Paris. After 1868, Schliemann was engaged in the history of Greece, paying particular attention to the Homeric poems.
Having Corfu, Ithaca and Mycenae, Schliemann put forward a theory (based on conjecture English archeologist F. Calvert) that ancient Troy was located on a hill Hissarlik in Asia Minor. The rationale of this theory in Ithaca, Peloponnese, and Troy (Ithaka, der Peloponnes und Troja, 1869) earned him a doctorate, assigned to the University of Rostock.
In 1870, Schliemann moved to Athens. Supervised excavations of Troy, where he found a lot of gold ornaments. In 1874 published his report on excavations in French under the title of Trojan antiquity (Antiquits Troyennes). Disappointed by the public reaction to the book and the tensions arising from the Turkish government due to the fact that gold was illegally exported from the country, Schliemann went to Mycenae, where in November 1876 opened the tomb of Mycenaean kings.
In 1878, Schliemann returned to Troy to continue the excavations, in which he was assisted by Emile Burnouf and archaeologist famous pathologist Virchow R.; was the result of this work book Ilion (Ilios) included an autobiography Schliemann and Virchow preface. Not being able to store a collection of houses in Athens, in 1880 Schliemann gave it to the German government (now she is in Moscow).
Throughout 1880 and 1881 Schliemann excavated another 'Homeric' city - Orchomenus. Job Schliemann Orchomenus (Orchomenos, 1881) contributed to a better understanding of ancient Greek architecture. In 1882 he resumed his studies at Troy, this time in collaboration with V. DцІrpfeld, professional architect, has already participated in the German excavations at Olympia. For pre-publication - Troja (1884) in 1885 followed by work Ilion, city and country of the Trojans (Ilios, ville et pays des Troyens). In 1884 Schliemann began excavations of the citadel of Tiryns; completed the work DцІrpfeld.
In 1886, Schliemann excavated again in Orhomene; winter of 1886-1887 held on the Nile. Planned excavations in Egypt and on Crete (and later implemented by A. Evans), work began on Kiefer and in Pylos. Despite the fierce attacks of the French and German scientists in 1890 and DцІrpfeld Schliemann began excavating a new Troy, which revealed the historical sequence of overlapping urban buildings, as disclosed by Schliemann. It was found that the second layer below, containing a hoard of gold objects, much older than Homeric Troy, a town of Homer is the one that is defined as DцІrpfeld sixth of the continental rocks. Schliemann died in Naples on Dec. 26, 1890.