Justin II JUNIOR( The last Byzantine emperor.)
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Biography Justin II JUNIOR
Justin was the favorite nephew of the Emperor Justinian, who appointed him as Tao (the head of the palace guards). This circumstance, as well as the influence at the court of the energetic wife Justina Sophia, the niece of Empress Theodora, secured him a peaceful accession to the throne on November 14 565. Condition finance empire, as well as its army was disappointing: he had to pay for ambitious military campaigns in the West. Justin began to reign with the fact that a debt of the late emperor, and promised to observe justice and tolerance in matters of religion. Justin filed for the empire exorbitant demands, and imperial duty to understand the basis of the old-fashioned ideas haughty Roman patrician. Throwing aside all restraint, however, the imperial nobility was absorbed by internal cooked and hardly even remotely consistent with these requirements, and the governors of provinces still poorly he obeyed. Unwilling to submit to the will of the emperor and monophysites, who soon withdrew from Justin himself, so that in 571-572 he started on them persecution.
Particularly adversely affected the intransigence of Justin on international affairs. After just a week after ascending the throne, he refused to pay due to them by the Avars in tribute to the reign of Justinian, thus turning them into enemies. However, after the devastating attacks of the accident at the northern frontiers of the empire Justin had to temper its enthusiasm and buy from them in 570. In the west's foreign policy has led to the catastrophe Justin: in 568 he could only helplessly watch the invasion of the Lombards led Alboin recaptured in the hard-Italy. A few years later successors Alboin owned almost the entire peninsula.
The most typical example of self-will of the emperor's foreign policy is its attitude to Persia. In 572, King Chosroes I reminded him that, according to the signed 10-th years before the treaty of peace in 50 years, it's time the next payment. Justin has ignored this requirement and, indeed, considering his unforgivable arrogant, invaded Persia in 573. At this step it has inspired an uprising that began in 571 made under the protection of the Byzantine Christians in the Persian provinces Persarmenii and Iberia against persecution by the Persian priestly caste of magicians, fire-worshipers. Justin also favored the invasion and the fact that he entered into an alliance with the Khan of the Western Turks. New extensive Turkish power, which stretched from the Black Sea to the borders with China, the conflict with Persia. The Turkish Embassy has offered Justin re-route the trade routes between Byzantium and the Far East, sending them through the Turkish, and not through the Persian land. However, before Nisibisom campaign ran into difficulties, and 13 November 573 Khosrow struck back, taking the rich and considered impregnable border town of Dara. The following year, he devastated the Byzantine Syria.
Justin had never recovered from the shock of the fall Gifts. Already suffering a mental disorder, now he just lost his mind. Sofia forced him to retire. The only son of the emperor was dead, and the Empress arranged for the transfer of rights to the throne noble captain of Tiberius, who became Caesar in December 574. Tiberius managed to restore peace with Persia. In 578, eight days before the death of Justin, Tiberius was granted the title of August. Died Justin II at Constantinople on October 4 578.