JANSEN Cornelius (Jansen Cornelis)( Nederlands theologian, Bishop Iprsky, founder of the theological system, known as 'Jansenism'.)
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Biography JANSEN Cornelius (Jansen Cornelis)
Born October 28, 1585 in Akkoe near Lerdama (Netherlands). In 1602 enrolled at the University of Louvain, which at that time were heated debates between the Spanish Jesuit Luis Molina (1535-1600) and the followers of Michael Bayyusa (1513-1589). Later, Jansen studied in Paris, where together with his friend Jean Duverger de Orannom turned to a deeper study of the works of the church fathers, especially Augustine, and the thought of the church reform. That their interests, he has not changed, and subsequently, when he became a professor of theology in the Collegium of St.. Pulkheria (Collge de Sainte-Pulchrie) in Louvain (since 1616), then Professor SW. Scripture in the University of Louvain (since 1630) and, finally, the Bishop Iprskim (since 1636). In Louvain he was actively engaged in polemics with the Jesuits, made against French expansionism, which manifests itself in the policy of Richelieu, and against the Dutch Presbyterian Gisbert Voetsiya. Last 20 years of life devoted to detailed study of the works of Augustine, which resulted in the writing of the three-volume works entitled: Augustinus, or the teachings of St.. Augustine on health, illnesses and healing of human nature, against the pelagic and massilian (ie. polupelagian). The latter ranked Jansen and 'some of the current' (molinistov). Jansen died in Ypres May 6, 1638.
Jansenism. Augustinus, was published posthumously in 1640. As leaders of the Reformation also appealed to the authority of Augustine, Jansen found it necessary to explain the difference between his position on the Protestant. For Protestants justification is an act of divine grace, in which sinners are declared righteous on the basis of the righteousness of Christ, ported to themselves and their perceived solely through faith. For Jansen's excuse is a process in which the sinner is gradually gaining righteousness, and that begins with an act of divine grace Treatment. The man, whose nature was radically corrupted by original sin, can not resist the pleasure nor lust, nor the joy of grace, and therefore does good or evil because of irresistible attraction, though of its own volition. By Jansen, Christ died not for all people, but only for those predestined to salvation.
Ground for the ideas put forward by Janssen, produced works of Michael Bayyusa (Michel de Baia). He was born in Hainaut in 1513, became a professor SW. Scripture in the University of Louvain in 1552, dean in 1570 and Vice-Chancellor in 1575. Referring to the authority of Augustine, Bayyus advanced the doctrine that affects the three main themes: the question of the original innocence of man, the nature of original sin and of the justification. This doctrine was accused of denying the supernatural began, and it was condemned in 1567 by Pius V and Gregory XIII in 1579. Bayyus died Sept. 16, 1589.
In 1642, Pope Urban VIII condemned the treatise Jansen of Augustine as a repetition of mistakes Bayyusa. In 1649, Cornet, syndic of the Sorbonne, extracted from the book Jansen 5 positions, which were subsequently condemned as heretical by Innocent X in the bull Cum occasione (May 31, 1653). The ensuing controversy lasted for many years, capturing all the new members. Teaching Jansen defended A. Arnaud (1612-1694), B. Pascal (1623-1662) and theologians yansenistskoy community in Port-Royalskom monastery near Paris. The main opponents of the Jansenists were the Jesuits, against whom Pascal since 1656, wrote his Provincial Letters, essays Jansenists were examined and condemned by the Sorbonne.
Jansenist pleaded not defeated. In 1693 Pashazy Quesnel gave impetus to a new wave of controversy in its interpretation of the New Testament, and in 1713 the bull Unigenitus Pope Clement XI condemned yansenistskie of Quesnel. Jansenists were ordered to submit to this bull on pain of severe punishment. In its ordinance Archbishop of Paris refused the right to a church funeral for those who do not bring repentance to his dying day (1752). Cause Jansen in the eyes of society is very damaging excesses of hysterical crowds gathered at the grave of Francis of Paris (1690-1727), Jansenist, popularly venerated as a saint.
Spirit of Jansenism not abated to this day. In the Netherlands there is an independent yansenistskaya church, a merger of the small community of French Jansenists with Dutch starokatolikami, seceded from the Roman Catholic Church in the early 18 century.