Katona (Senior) (Marcus Porcius Cato Censorius)( Roman politician, orator and writer)
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Biography Katona (Senior) (Marcus Porcius Cato Censorius)
Cato (the Elder), Cato the Censor; Marcus Porcius Cato Censorius, 234-149 gg. BC. e., a Roman politician, orator and writer. The abundance of sources, K. is among the most famous personalities in II. BC. e. He was born in Tuskule, came from the equestrian type (equity), and was educated at home in the country of the Sabines, where the longest held out for harsh Ancient customs. From early youth he was preparing to engage in economic affairs, working in the field, often with slaves. In 217-216 years. entered military service, with 214 g. was a military tribune in Sicily. As the first among Portion (homo novus), K. began to seek positions.
In 204 g. was in Africa when Questore Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus the Elder. On the way back to Rome took with him from the Sardinian poet Ennia. People aediles he was in the city of 199, then 198 g. As praetor resided in Sardinia, eliminating usury. As consul in 195 g., won in Spain, for which he received in 194 g. right to triumph. In 184 g. became the censor, and the post served with extraordinary severity (hence his nickname), among other things, removing from the Senate, Senators 7. From public life never departed. Implacable enemy of Carthage, has consistently called for its destruction. But above all, he fought in every possible way against the advancing Hellenization, especially persecuted Roman philhellenist, and among them with particular insistence - Scipio. It is this dislike of Hellenization and the desire to train in the Roman tradition of son Mark (c.. 192) and made from K. writer. Shortly after taking office, to censor. autograph for his son in big letters history of Rome, of course, the concept is interpreted in its own way, and when his son a little older, gave him practical wisdom, they got their own experience, the Manual son (Praecepta ad filium). This work is recognized throughout the first Roman encyclopedia, contained training in agriculture, rhetoric and medicine.
All indications are imbued with moralistic tendencies, as illustrated by the determination of the speaker, who is "just a man who owns the art of rhetoric". The same didactic prose essay has been the custom (Carmen de moribus). K. also produced manuals on various issues important to the landowner and the citizen. We know the following names: Medical notes (Commentarius de medicina), Notes on the civil law (Commentarii iuris civilis), on military affairs (De re militari). This series of special papers belonged to a work on agriculture (De agri cultura), the most ancient monument of Latin prose. This is not a systematic exposition of the author of knowledge about modern agriculture, but the meeting ordered for guidance on managing the economy in the manor. Some attempts to systematize can only be found in the initial part, namely, sections 1-54, relating to the purchase and resettlement estates, wine and olive dressing, as well as field work.
The rest is a variety of economic advice, not united by a main idea and - except for frequent repetitions - without any connection with the initial part of. This unassuming collection of tips a good owner, constantly supplemented and processed, built up over many years, he shows us to. man who is constantly something studied. Even in old age, ca. 168 g., K. begin processing the history of Rome, which brought to 149 g.; not preserved piece was of a rather peculiar name of the beginning (Origines). It contained 7 books, the first of which was devoted to the legendary history of Rome from the foundation Eneem in 751 g. BC. e. before the fall of imperial power, while books II-III Legends expounded on the basis of other Italic cities. Legendary material to. complemented by abundant geographical and ethnographic information. The remaining books, which originality can be seen even from fragments that contained the history of Rome. Thus, IV book describes the Punic Wars, Book V, probably, the Macedonian War, Book VI - the war with Antiochus III the Great and book VII - the war in Spain.
This structure was the result of the notorious break with the traditions of the Roman annalistiki, which is manifested in the fact that K. not writing, like his predecessors, in Greek, but only in Latin. Thus, K. was a genuine man of Roman historiography. Continuing ambivalence of the work (book. I-III and Prince. V-VII), not very suitable to the whole name and subsidence events from the fall of the tsarist regime before the first Punic war requires explanation. Gaps in the presentation of Roman history are obvious, whereas in the book. II-III in the exposition of the history of the Italic cities often provides information about events in the history of Rome. Title also suit the content of the book. I-III, was later retained for the whole product. Because of the hatred of the aristocratic clans, whose representatives ruled the Roman policy, to. not reproduced at the beginning no name. It was a history of Rome, intended for the Romans to the historical events. assessed on its own. From a political and public activities connected speech K.; they had a lot. 44 times charge to. defended himself before the court alone, and always successful. Since the consulate issued its speech.
Cicero knew more than 150, of the half leaving only fragments. All works to. differ integrity of processing and good knowledge of the subject, where considered necessary, even used Greek sources. By Language. was very diverse. In the special writings, he does not deviate too much from household Latin. The peculiarity of speech to. rightly praised Gellius, who wrote: "All this, perhaps, and could present a more harmonious and sweet, but expressive and full of life - it is impossible". Traces deliberate stylization are fragments and speeches began, their language is somewhat archaic and ponderous, especially in the speeches. By Style. imitated Sallust. Except for the period of heightened interest in the old Roman literature in the reign of Hadrian, who appreciated K. higher than that of Cicero, the influence of his work on the history of Roman literature is very little. From his heritage fastest outdated language that is understandable, though Quintilian warned that young men do not read, K., suggests that the charm of these speeches and then it was no small. Best artistic work of the beginning (in the form of copied his Sallust) has had little impact on the development of Roman historiography, it has been forgotten, not only because of changing literary tastes, . but also extraliterary reasons, . for rejoicing in the republican system,
. Literary mediocre treatise on agriculture has reached us so far, since it serves as a handbook for the owner of the estate.