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Demosthenes (Demosthenes)

( Greek orator and politician)

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Biography Demosthenes (Demosthenes)
Demosthenes, Demosthenes, 384-322 gg. BC. e., Greek orator and politician. Numbered with canon 10 speakers, recognized the most outstanding representative of Greek rhetoric, a brilliant stylist and a great politician. The son of Demosthenes, the owner of the weapons shop. Who lost his father at age 7, is also deprived estates unscrupulous guardians, he decided to seek redress in court and to this end, practiced eloquence in Izeya. At age 20 he began the process of the return of the estate and won it, but wasted the property has not received. As a result, he became logograph, making speeches for clients - at first for particular processes, and then also for political. Because of flaws in pronunciation patiently worked on diction, practiced under the guidance of actor satire, immersed Izokratom, Thucydides and Plato. He became known as the speaker app. 354 g., . when made with the first political speech on tax-paying districts (Peri symmorion), . which urged Athenians to reform the fiscal system and the expansion of the navy, . to combat the impending expansion of Philip II, . Macedonian ruler,

Soon D. antimakedonskoy becomes leader of the Party and in his famous political speeches warning the Athenians about the aggressive policy of Philip, . called on Greeks to defend freedom and the democratic system, . fought against the oligarchic groups promakedonskih, . led by among others, was his main adversary Aeschines,
. Vigorous activity D. resulted in 340 g. to unite the Greek states led by Athens, . but his most significant political achievement was the declination of Thebes to an alliance with Athens against Philip, . that bribery and promises of friendship Thebans sought to, . Considering the strategic position of their country,
. Battle of Heroneey (338) identified the victory of Macedonians. In the funeral oration in honor of the fallen in this battle of the D. glorifies the policy of Athens, and their relentless struggle for freedom and the democratic system, denounces corrupt politicians from promakedonskogo camp. After the defeat of the D. engaged in the internal affairs of Athens, including the state of recovery fortification. In recognition of his merits Ktesifont made a proposal to award the D. golden wreath.

This was objected to Aeschines, was accused of incompetence Ktesifont proposals and at the same time fiercely attacked the D. D. replied the famous speech on the wreath, in which defending Ktesifont, gave a report on his life, and contrasted their own activities in the public interest policy promakedonskoy Aeschines and his storonikov. The wreath was awarded to him. Into it Harpalus, treasurer of Alexander of Macedon, D. again appeared before the court in 324 GI has been accused of wasting 20 talent that he had to spend for state needs, and was punished by a fine of 50 talents. Because he could not pay, he was imprisoned, where he managed to escape. He went to Aegina and triumphantly returned to Athens after the death of Alexander. However, when Athens defeated in the so-called lamiyskoy war, the ruler of Macedonia, Antipater demanded the death of Dr.. Trying to escape from his pursuers, he committed suicide on the island Kalavra in the temple of Poseidon. Under the name D. 61 survived the political and judicial speech. Speeches private processes, the authenticity of which mostly is in doubt, interested mainly in terms of studies of law, studying the customs and historical events.

Fame among his contemporaries and successors brought D. political speeches, and especially 3 Olintiyskie speech (Olynthiakoi logoi I-III), 3 Philips (Kata Philippon), of which a third had two editors, and talk about the wreath, or in defense of Ktesifont (Hyper Ktesiphontos peri tu stephanu). In Olintiyskih rechahSh created in 349-348 years. D. calls to help Olintu, . threatened by the invasion of Philip, . denounces inaction and political short-sightedness of Athens, . advocates tax reform, . and above all for the elimination of the so-called theater fund and direction of all the budget surplus to strengthen the Athenian army and navy,
. When in spite of the threefold statement of the Athenian fleet Olint has fallen, and Philip, capturing the southern coast of Hersones Amfipolis, Pidnu and Potidea, then took over Phocis, for D. it became clear that he seeks to surround and capture the entire Athens Greece. Warning against the danger D. acts Philips. He examines in detail the political situation in Athens, struggles with passivity and discouragement of their compatriots and, foreseeing a bright future of his country, called on all Greeks to fight for freedom. It reaches the height of his eloquence

. Other political speech, D.: On the situation in the Chersonese (Peri tu en Chersonesego), On the abuse of power, Ambassador (Peri parapresbeias) - Aeschines accusation of betraying the interests of Athens in the negotiations related to the so-called Filokratovym myrrh;
. On the tax-paying districts (Peri symmorion), In defense of freedom Rhodians (Peri tes Rhodion eleutherias); against the aristocracy (Kata Aristokratus). Speeches D. distinguishes carefully thought-out both the content and expressions. D. considered the most outstanding representative of the so-called sublime style, though he skillfully used as the average and simple styles. He avoided the decorations, but did not reject the unusual designs and anacoluthon. Use strong, albeit simple metaphors and operational proposals served to underscore his train of thought. The form he submitted content. D. fascinated audience the logic of arguments, force sense, the pronunciation of expressiveness, as well as the specific rhythm of prose. Cicero and Quintilian recognized it as the first Greek speaker, he was popular in Europe, new time, and his speeches have repeatedly commented, they imitated, in particular, Bossuet, Fenelon, Montesquieu, and Mirabeau.

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