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Isocrates (Isokrates)

( Greek speaker)

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Biography Isocrates (Isokrates)
Isocrates; Isokrates, 436-338 gg. BC. e., Greek speaker. The son of the owner of small workshop, a student of the Sophists, Socrates and the Politics of Teramo. Literary activity began in 403 g. with the writing of speeches on the judicial order. In 390 g. opened in Athens school of eloquence, the program which, except for rhetoric, the study also included some basic history, literature, history, law, and even in some sense psychology. School and. was Europe's first secondary school, which was supposed to prepare students for the execution of public office. It brought speakers Demosthenes, Hyperides, Aeschines, Lycurgus, Deynarh, historians - Teopomp, Ephor etc.. I. also developed a broad political activity, due to a weak voice he did not speak in public, their views disseminated by means of political pamphlets, compiled in the form of fictitious speeches, and journalistic sheets.

Domestic politics and. was a supporter of the oligarchy, in the outer - the idea and. was to unite the Greek cities for the war with Persia. The victory in that war, the victory was to liberate the territory for settlers from overpopulated areas of Greece. The leaders of this campaign and. sought primarily in Athens and Sparta, and then outside Greece, he saw his head in Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, and after his death - in Philip II, king of Macedonia. Literary heritage and. includes judicial speech, program works, political pamphlets and leaflets. Forensic speeches date back 403-390 years. It is against Evfinuna the trial without witnesses (Pros Euthynun amartyros; 403 g.); Against Kallimaha (Pros Kallimachon paragrafe) against Loyhita (Kata Loichitu epilogos; after 403), . Alcibiades speech in defense of charges Lisiya; against bankers (Trapezitikos; ca,
. 394), containing a lot of interesting information on trade in Athens with the Bosphorus; speech before the court in Heghine (Aiginetikos; 390).

Rhetorical program and. presented in the two speeches: Against the Sophists (Kata ton sofiston; 390) and on the exchange of property (Peri antidoseos; 353) in these speeches and. Condemns speakers, . employed empty cases and not caring about the form and style of his speeches, . and Sophists, . offering in its rhetorical schools ready role models, . not paying attention to general education students; actions of the enemy he opposes its own program, . giving guidance on the education of young, . as well as the composition of speeches, . their style and content,
. Particular attention it draws on the content of speech, its moral orientation. In other speeches and. argues against sophistic declamations Gorgias and Polycrates, he criticizes the inability of their predecessors, indicates an error, and then demonstrates how to build this type of speech. 373 dated to year three compositions I., . on Nikoklu, . ruler of Salamis in Cyprus: Nikokleya and Nikokl or Cypriots, . in which the author advises the governor and describes the responsibilities of citizen, . and Evagoras, . piece praising the dead king, . father Nikokla,

This work is essential to the history of literature as the earliest monument of prose eulogy historical person and a model for all the later literature of this type in Greece. Political essays and. relate primarily to the internal situation in Greece and the problem of war with Persia. The earliest of these is the famous Panegyric (Panegyrikos; 386), the pamphlet, written in the form of a speech at the Olympic games in it and. expressed support for the II Marine Union. Plateyskaya speech (Plataikos; 373) and Archidom (366) represents a reaction to the expansion of Thebes, calls come to the aid of Athens and Sparta Plataea in the fight against this city. Epistle to Dionysius (367 g.) persuades the tyrant of Syracuse, that he joined the Spartan-Athenian alliance against Persia. In a speech on the world (Peri eirenes; ok.357) and. once again agitating for the Panhellenic peace and harmony. The problems of internal politics of Athens, he decides to Areopagitica (speech before the Areopagus, after 355). I., doubts about the strength of the Athenian democracy, here expresses the belief that to restore prosperity and power of Athens can only be returned to the legislation of Solon. From 346 g. I. devote all their efforts organizing the march on Persia under the leadership of Philip II of Macedon.

This issue is addressed in the writings of Philip (346), the Epistles Philippe (344) and the Epistles Alexander (342). Political will and. was Panafeyanskaya speech (Panathenaikos; 342-339 gg.), in which he sums up his political activities, complementing these arguments literary controversy with the Sophists. Private matter, the request for return from exile of Agenor, is contained in the letter and. to the rulers of Mytilene (350). Not preserved it in honor of Grillo, who fell under Mantineey son of Xenophon. Not considered a real message to Demoniku, Message Antipater and the third message to Philip (338). I. was the creator of the theory of classical Greek prose, and his main achievement was the separation of language from the language of prose, poetry (the use of poetic expressions he allowed only in the fictitious speeches), and the development of rhythmically disjointed period. I. instructed always to avoid hiatus. He was counted among the canon 10 Attic orators.

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