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Gnaeus Nevij (Naevius)

( Roman poet)

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Biography Gnaeus Nevij (Naevius)
Gnaeus Naevius, Gnaeus; Naevius, Gnaeus, mind. app. 201 g. BC. e., Roman poet. Was born, apparently, in Capua in Campania. Took part in the I Punic War. In 235 g. put his first play. Notorious Campanian pride, a sense of significance fuels his dislike for Nobile, and inspired to fight for the freedom of speech. This is clearly reflected in his work, especially in comedy. Publicly, the names N. attacked the representatives of the influential aristocratic family Metella, who also did not remain in debt, having achieved a 206 year imprisonment of the poet in prison, and later, perhaps, his exile. In 204 g. N. left Rome, and moved, presumably, in Utik in Africa, where he died in 201 g. BC. e. or later. Literary activity he began with a stage of poetry: the tragedies and comedies, doing several years, along with Livy Andronik, and possibly from Plautus, who was able to become famous only when H. left Rome. The main thrust of creativity H. a comedy. He wrote and directed dozens of plays based on Greek models, so-called fabulae palliatae (palliata, that is a comedy, who were playing in the Greek costumes). We know the 35 titles and about 140 fragments.

Fragments of these, however, too small to be able to determine the sources of some Greek comedies N.; these were mainly representatives of the play sredneatticheskoy comedy: Evbula, Alexis, Antifana - and novoatticheskoy comedy (Menander). On Menander H. relied in comedy Flatterer (Colax). N. perceived the Greek model as a conventional scheme, . model, . he freely filled content, . corresponding to the Roman or Italic vision, . with allusions to the existing conditions, . sharp, . and sometimes acrimonious attacks on contemporary statesmen and political leaders,
. N. also connected storylines of several Greek samples in one piece, or used contamination

. Grammar, . lexicographers and some representatives of the Roman literature brought us scattered, . mainly odnostihovye Samples, . and sometimes only the names of comedies N.: Killer (Akontizomenos), . Comedy drover (Agitatoria), . Sleepless (Agrypnuntes), . Apuliyka (Apella), . Visionary (Ariolus) - play with color Italic, . therefore, some consider it a domestic comedy - Togatov (fabula togata), . Lyubeznitsa (Astiologa), . Ugolschitsa (Carbonaria), . Hlamidariya, . Flatterer (Colax), . Kommotriya (only the name, . given by Varro), . Flower (Corollaria), . Crazy (Dementes), . Demetrius (only the name of a Varro), . Deception (Dolus), . Gonchar (Figulus), . Glaucoma (Glaukoma), . Teacher Gymnastics (Gymnasticus), . The lamp (the name of a slave), . Leon (the title, . probably, . name), . Lidus (some consider it a tragedy), . Nagido (preserved only one word), . Sailors (Nautae), . Nerbolariya (exact translation of the name no), . Prostitute (Paelex), . Mask (Personata), . Foundling (Proiectus), . Four twins (Quadrigemini), . Stalagmite (on behalf of the slave), . Labeled (Stigmatias), . Tarentiyka (Tarentilla), . Charlatan (Technicus), . Comedy about the tunic (Tunicularia), etc.,

In the titles of plays most frequently appears the name of a slave, teacher, or the main culprit of intrigue, sometimes the name of a girl. The vast majority of names - the adjectives with the suffix-aria, indicating a deletion of the word "comedy". This type of titles, often also in Plautus, and no longer occurring in the later representatives of the Hellenized palliata (Cecilia and Terence), indicates a strong bond N. with Italic stage creativity. Individual fragments are not allow to reconstruct any of the plays. The only comedy, the contents of which managed to establish a considerable degree of probability, it Tarentiyka: in one of the fragments of the poet described the defiance full of charm and incredibly puss. Some scientists admit that H. was the creator and Togatov, . that is a comedy on domestic topics, . and treat it in a piece of the play soothsayer, . but observed in it originally Italic coloring, . which is present in the fragments of other plays N., . in palliata Plautus, . refutes this assumption: rather, it shows respect for the free H,
. to Greek models. Language comedies H. so rich, that the poet conveys with it all shades of moods - from the humorous, a sentimental, to a serious, passionate, almost caustic. It marked features of spoken language with an abundance of interjections and diminutive forms.

If we turn our attention to the diversity of poetic dimensions, then come to the conclusion that all of what we admire in Plautus, was not alien and H. Far less prolific thespian, to compete in this field with Livy Andronik, H. wrote copied from Greek models play in the mythological themes, called on shoes actors fabulae cothurnatae (koturnaty) or fabulae crepidatae (krepidaty). N. reworking of Greek tragedy mostly Trojan cycle: Trojan horse (Equos Troianos), TRIP Hector (Hector proficiscens), Iphigenia, and, probably, Andromache, other traditions have defined the content of tragedies Danae and Lycurgus. N. enriched the traditional patterns of Greek tragedies motifs of Roman legends and scenes from contemporary Roman history and the role performed by actors in togas trimmed with fringe - pretekstah, hence the name of this national tragedy - fabula praetexta. In the play Romulus (Romulus) or Wolf (Lupus) H. extolled the foundation of Rome, and in the tragedy Klastidy (Clastidium) honored the victory of Claudius Marcellus over the Gauls in 222 g. BC. e. Patriotism H. and his fondness for historical subjects have found expression in the national epic of the Punic War Song of the Punic War (Belli Punici carmen). This work, written in ancient Italic Saturnian verse, was later divided grammarian Lampadionom 7 books. Fragmented product safety led to different opinions of scientists on its composition and content.

Recently, it is assumed that most likely, H. after a call to the Muses at once proceeded to describe the events I Punic War, but, bringing the narrative up to 262 g. BC. e. even in the first book, . cut him out the long, . but significant in terms of the poetics of the genre mythological-legendary episode of the flight of Aeneas from Troy and his wanderings up to the founding of Rome, . that only at the end of III or IV in the book again to start the story of the later history of the war until its end in 241 g,
. BC. e. N. mentioned in the poem and about his own involvement in the war described. Epic H. has influenced all subsequent historical poem, which, starting with Ennia, has already been written hexameters. Many poems N. Virgil's Aeneid and must Punika Celia Italica. For the history of literature, however, more important than his influence on Plautus, in which N. found capable imitator and follower.

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