Posidonius (Poseidonios)( Greek philosopher)
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Biography Posidonius (Poseidonios)
Posidonius; Poseidonios, of Apamea, c.. 135-OK. 50 years. BC. e., Greek philosopher. In Athens, was a disciple of Paneth. Perhaps, after his death, he traveled around the Mediterranean, including Spain and Africa. Then settled on Rhodes, where he obtained citizenship, and even held a high position lying low, and in 87 g. joined the Embassy in Rome Rhodians. At Rhodes, he founded his own philosophical school, which accommodated many of the Romans, in 79 g. Lecture II. there listening to Cicero. Pompey great twice visited P. Rhodes. P. was extraordinarily versatile scientist, author of the philosophical, historical, geographical, ethnographical, meteorological works. Following ancient traditions, he again connected the natural sciences and history to philosophy, which in all cases assigned the first place. - The great literary heritage of P. lost. Survived only a certain number of fragments, reports to us of late antiquity authors. Therefore, it is difficult to get an idea of the literary value of works P. Apparently, much of it was in the nature of free, full of digressions essay.
Most important were the philosophical works of AP, which has become a true creator of the so-called middle Stoicism. Although it mainly followed the principles enunciated his teachers and predecessors, but gave them a new form. Contrary to the ancient Stoics, he claimed that nature is not always good. It proceeded on the premise that "to live according to nature" is not a sufficient moral criterion nor for society or for the individual. Work on a includes support that is reasonable, and avoidance of the fact that it is unwise. Zeno and his closest followers first called attention to the individual. Paneth, and after him and P. saw it as part of society and the world, which (especially emphasizes PA) is a single organism. All its elements are included in the interdependence that defines their essence. Therefore, based on observation of one element or phenomena located in one place or at any point of time, can, according to AP, to draw conclusions about other elements or phenomena. This explains the important role of astrology and Mantica ( "scientific" divination) in philosophy P., of Cicero, which was later used to write his books.
Witness the life and customs of distant peoples and inhabitants of neighboring countries have resulted in P. to the conclusion that the Logos was particularly more impact on the lives of both individuals and society. With the development of civilization identity loses contact with the Logos and its ethical level is significantly reduced. In the future, Logos and does disappear from the world and then begin a global conflagration (ekpyrosis), after which the world will once again go through the same phase of development, as in the previous cycle. In contrast to the old stoicism, P. took the values of other philosophical schools and their often assimilate. Many, he is obliged to schools of Plato, Aristotle and the Pythagoreans. Not preserved historical work of P. (52 books) is a continuation of the history of Polybius and ended, apparently, 84-83 years. BC. e. Pompey the Great War II. described in the appendix to this work. P. pessimistic mood about the history of mankind and Rome. He believed that the moral decay deepens from generation to generation. In the history of Rome beginning of the fall, he believed the destruction of Carthage in 146. BC. e., a victory which allowed soften the harsh customs and opened the way civil wars. These views have had a great influence on Sallust. Been lost as the work of P. in geography, geology, ethnology, meteorology and astronomy. Some of the information contained in them has reached us through Strabo.
Particularly important was a large geographical work of the Ocean (Peri Okeanu), where P. tried to explain the geography and geophysics from the perspective of Stoic philosophy. For example, he took Eratosthenes, but more interested in geophysics than descriptive or mathematical geography. He tried to explain how the interaction of terrestrial and celestial bodies led to the emergence from the ocean and created a solid ground on her condition, which allowed to develop all forms of life, from the lowest to the person. Innovative value were contained in this study monitor communications and decrease the Moon stay with the tides of the sea. Much attention P. has given the Earth's climate and its influence on the formation of different peoples and races of mankind. These works are the fruit of travel P. west of Europe and Africa. But P. also interested in the southern countries and their peoples (Gauls, Germans). It is possible that the information P. used by Caesar and Tacitus.