Tolmachev Vladimir Yakovlevich( Scientific)
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Biography Tolmachev Vladimir Yakovlevich
The successes that mark the current stage of development of archaeological science, as in the East of our country, and in North-East China, are based on the selfless and dedicated work of several generations of researchers. Can understand our growing interest in the works of predecessors, the history of their lives and scientific discoveries.
History disposed so that a group of Russian scientists from the stormy vicissitudes of the beginning of this century was in the North-East China, which became the center of Manchu postrevolutionary emigration. Among them were professionals, archaeologists, initiating a scientific study of archaeological monuments of this incredibly interesting for us region (1). Chinese counterparts in recent years have done much to revive the memory of these people, . publishing not only issued in the first half of this century and have become now very difficult to access their articles, . but manuscript, . which are outside of China did not know it (2),
History of science - is not only the history of ideas and discoveries, but also the history of people. Two people were recognized leaders in Harbin archaeologists in the 20-40-s. This Vladimir diarrhea (3) and Vladimir Yakovlevich Tolmachev (4). No small measure because of them formed a kind of Harbin School of archaeological and ethnographic study of local lore.
Vladimir Yakovlevich Tolmachev in Russia is known primarily as one of the first archaeologists Uralic. He discovered and explored a number of monuments of archaeological cultures from all times in the Urals. Was the creator of the first "archaeological map of the Middle Urals" / 1915 /. Since 1907 - Member of Wole - Ural Society of Naturalists and 1908 also a member of the Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission.
VY. Tolmachev born in Shadrinsk district of the Perm province in a poor noble family. Date of Birth - 21 November (Old Style) 1876. His father, James A. served as a notary in g. Shadrinsk. Mother was engaged in housekeeping and child-rearing. In Vladimir, there were three: Nicholas was born in 1882 (5), Maria - around 1885, Elena - about 1888. Vladimir received a classical education in high school and entered Yekaterinburg after its completion in 1896 at the Physics and Mathematics of St. Petersburg University. Along with classes at the university he attended and the Academy of Arts. But there was a young man, another passion. Archeology. She led him in 1900 once the second course of the Archaeological Institute. By that time, Vladimir Jakovljevic not only formed an interest in this science, but also appeared experience independent of archaeological research.
French teachers in high school was the scientific secretary Wole, a great connoisseur
edge, amateur archaeologist Onesimus Egorovich Claire (6). The first regional study tours around the outskirts of Yekaterinburg were conducted under the guidance of a teacher. In 1897godu Tolmachev begins to collect information about the archeological sites of the Middle Urals. He also holds the first independent exploration and excavation. All of their summer vacation with this, and until 1902 Tolmachev holds in archaeological routes. Together with his brother Nicholas, they opened a number of prehistoric monuments. In 1900, Vladimir Yakovlevich performs preliminary excavations on the northern shore of Lake Shigirskogo, where the eastern slope of the mountain Skvortsova he then found the famous Shigirskoe mound. Much attention is paid archaeologist peat swamps on the shores of Lake Isetsk. It is in the moors them were found on the amazing preservation of wooden objects.
Tolmachev carefully studying the archaeological museum collections Wole, visiting in the vicinity of Yekaterinburg nature monuments and archaeological interest in the Devil's mound, Shartashskie Stone tent. The result is a young researcher has an essay, completed 31 March 1901 - "Remains of ancient culture in the area of the Ekaterinburg district of the Perm province". This work was submitted for review by the University, Professor Dr.. Koropchevskomu as a test of work, received highly satisfactory ratings (7). In 1904, occupation archeology Tolmachev had to interrupt. The war. He was called up for active duty in the army. Began his military career with the rank of corporal, he was discharged from the army reserve lieutenant, with several military decorations. Two years have not only become an ordeal, but familiarity with Manchuria. In between battles, he gathered a collection of butterflies and a large collection of antiquities. Many pictures. All this was then transferred to the Museum Society. Unfortunately, the archaeological collection of almost nothing.
1906-1907 years were spent in travel. Vladimir Yakovlevich was in Siberia, where he met with the archaeological collections from the banks of the Yenisei River, worked in museums in many large cities of Central Russia. Visited India, Egypt, Singapore. After returning to St. Petersburg, he worked hard to study and description of the Ural collections, which were kept in the capital's museums. In 1908 the Imperial Archaeological Commission, he was seconded to the Orenburg province, where he conducted reconnaissance of ancient monuments. In 1909 and 1910. new address research becomes Samara Province. The following year, Tolmachev returned to the Urals and was embarking on its long-standing dream - the creation of an archaeological map of the Middle Urals. At the invitation of Wole he is working on streamlining the collections and the creation of their new catalog. As a result of enormous effort, all 15 thousand items in the archaeological department of the museum were analyzed, systematized, small things sewn on the floor. Information about objects without passports "have been clarified by their previous owners. In 1913, Mr.. Tolmachev finished the job (8). At the same time published the first two production capital work "Antiquities of the Urals" (9). By studying museum collections, Tolmachev not forget and practical archeology. In 1911, Mr.. he undertook excavation mounds near the village of Serkova Shadrinsk in the county, opens several new monuments. On instructions Archaeological Commission in 1914. examines all the known rock paintings in Verkhoturye Irbitsky, Kamyshlovsk, Yekaterinburg and Shadrinsk counties. During the outbreak of World War II, while in Petrograd in the military, Vladimir Yakovlevich continued scientific work, as, in particular, spoke of his ongoing correspondence with OY. Clair. In 1915, Mr.. He concluded "the archaeological map of the Middle Urals, where noted at the 400 known archaeological locations. In 1917, Mr.. Tolmachev, visited a number of open prior monuments, where he made detailed plans. In 1918-1919,. elected Scientific Secretary of Wole Vladimir Yakovlevich actively participates in the Society and its museum, is local history classes with students of the People's University in Yekaterinburg.
The events of the civil war in the Urals put VY. Tolmachyova a hard choice. As an officer of the tsarist army, he could not count on the benevolent attitude of local authorities (10). Before joining the Bolsheviks in Yekaterinburg Tolmachev left town.
Evacuation from areas of the Urals occurred on the Trans-Siberian Railway Line. On the east then poured the mass of the people. There were many intellectuals. Far Eastern Republic with the center in Chita inspired hope in the possibility not to leave Russia. And as a fallback position remained the road later in Manchuria. As you know, one of the most important issues of emigration - language problem. In Manchuria, it was virtually nonexistent. One could apply their knowledge at first, possessing only native Russian language. We do not know where Tolmachev decided to go to China: still in Yekaterinburg or eventually, when it became apparent inability to feed and keep the family. But some time hope that does not have to leave home, it did not leave. In any case, the road to Manchuria was long.
One can assume that Vladimir Ya had a stopover in Irkutsk, where his brother. The documents in this regard we do not have. Certainly until we can speak only for a short period of life Transbaykal researcher. In Chita, he made a "breathing space", and then took the final decision.
Upon arriving in Chita Vladimir Yakovlevich entered the service in regional Zemstvo board, and in late November 1920. appointed instructor in the Division of Arts section of the monuments of art and antiquities, . and then "moved to the position of director of department of collections MOE training workshop" Far Eastern Republic (GACHO, . f.R-32, . op.2, . 1, . l.6, . 12ob.),
. Order of the Ministry of 3 September 1921. VY. Tolmachev was appointed professor of the State Institute of Education (Ghino) defined it at the department in accordance with his specialty "(GACHO, f.R-32, op.2, 1, l.40). Is known that he taught the history of primitive culture.
Name VY. Tolmacheva is in the minutes of the meeting of the Commission on the reorganization of the regional museum / November 19, 1920goda / (11). The commission was assembled with the assistance of the Minister of Education Government of the Far Eastern Republic Stamp. Malysheva. Tolmachev entered it with members of the Trans-Baikal Branch of the Russian Geographic Society. Soon after Vladimir Yakovlevich joined the Board AOR RGO. Scientific Society of Trans-Baikal regional sources rather actively worked. In 1921, there have been 11 general meetings. On the proposal of the Provisional Council of the Chita Regional Museum at the general meeting of the Chita Amur Branch Division of the Russian Geographical Society, February 15, 1921, Mr.. VY. Tolmachev adopted its active member (GACHO, f.R-1545, op.1, 1, l.1). At the general meeting on May 8 Tolmachev made a report "On the archaeological finds in the vicinity of r. Cheats (12). The discussion took an active part museum director AK. Kuznetsov (GACHO, f.R-1545, op.1, 1, l.22-22ob.). He spent several tours of the lake on the outskirts of the city Kenon. A large number of finds from the Iron Age sites have them transferred to the National History Museum (13). In order to attract the broad masses of the teachers and students to collect materials and to replenish the museum's collections of its staff and members of AOR RGO had special instructor courses. Archaeological studies conducted museum director famous archaeologist AK. Kuznetsov. Tolmachev guided lessons on entomology (14).
VY. Tolmachev left Chita, probably in late winter 1922. In October, 1921. He asked for a separation from service in the workshop manuals (GACHO, R-32, op.2, 1, l.70), and February 14 next year, knocked out the number of teachers Ghino (15).
Experience in teaching and organizational activities, which Vladimir Yakovlevich received in Russia, it is very handy later in Harbin. Why he left Chita? We can assume that the reasons were all the same as that of a departure from Yekaterinburg. Date of arrival in Manchuria, we do not know. However, the spring of 1922 among the speakers at the course of his name is not (16). And since 1923 the library department are beginning to enter the publication of the Society study of the Manchurian region (OIMK). Probably, their colleagues in Chita sent Tolmachev. From him in Harbin to learn about the resumption of work in Chita branch RGO. Contacts with friends and colleagues in Soviet Russia would continue for some time. This paper presents only the works of Vladimir Yakovlevich on archeology Transbaikalia. It was an article about the two accidentally discovered burials - one of them in the g. Sretensk, the second just is not localized. Both the large number of bone. They met in Chita Tolmachev Museum. In fact, prior to the 60-ies it was the only special publication of the archaeological monuments in the basin of the Upper Amur. A.P. Okladnikov later defined these as the Neolithic burial. This was the last of the works produced in the Homeland Tolmacheva.
More than thirteen years he lived VY. Tolmachev Harbin. In this city were many Russian intellectuals. VV. Lomansky in September 1927, wrote to Russia botany V.L. Komarov: "I'm in Harbin since the end of 1919. ... the last 5-6 years there has accumulated a lot of intellectual forces, and thus much any kind of austere, sometimes successful ". Among these "successful austere" organization in 1922, the Company's study of the Manchurian region (OIMK). And in 1923, was created and Museum. Soon, the Society has started a special department, whose task organization of archaeological research. It found the force of experienced investigators. It is known that he served as curator.
Many good things said about his friend and colleague Vladimir Ponosov in his work on the history of archaeological study of Northern Manchuria. Tolmachev was one of the few Harbin humanitarians, who received his education in the old Russian university centers. In addition, he was not only a special archaeological education, but also great experience of independent work, including in the field of archeology. In light of this it is difficult to overestimate the contribution Tolmacheva, as well as Ponosov to the establishment of the Manchu Archeology. After arriving in Harbin Tolmachev immediately continued his scientific studies. His studies were associated with line areas CEL. He explored the vicinity of cities of Harbin and Hailar River basin Haylan and many other areas. In 1927, Mr.. at the invitation of the Tokyo Far East Archaeological Society Vladimir Yakovlevich took part in the excavations in the south of Liaodong Peninsula.
Research interests Tolmachyova concentrating on archeology. By early 1933, he had published 17 articles devoted to the study of the commodity market in North Manchuria. This line of research was associated with the service on the board of CEL. Many of these articles is now of considerable interest to ethnographers, historians of the economy and even practitioners.
Yet for us the greatest interest of the VY. Tolmacheva on archeology edge. His pen belong to the first reliable information about the opening of palaeolithic implements in Manchuria. This event was preceded by collecting and examining remnants of Pleistocene fauna. In 1926 Tolmachev, together with soil scientists etc.. Gordeev examined the place finds mammoth tusk in the territory of modern Harbin. For information about discoveries of mammoth bones and rhino are regularly received the staff of the Museum OIMK. Vladimir Yakovlevich, together with his colleagues went to Occurrences. In 1929 he published the information on the discovery vertebra woolly rhinoceros in the region r. Hailar. At different times they were collected faunal remains in the shallows of the Songhua. In 1930, among his duties were fossil horse tooth and pelvic bone of a deer. The world-famous point with many remnants of the mammoth fauna in various villages Gusyantun. Most of the bones found there to be found in loess clay, rarely found in general form. However E.E. Anertom etc. Gordeev Tolmachev finds that these clays were not the original place of burial of bones. It is interesting to tafonomicheskie observations on this subject.
The greatest optimism inspired scientist finds processed by a human hand bones and horns in CHzhalajnorskih mines. Conclusion sounded straightforward: "North Manchuria has an extensive fauna of the Pleistocene, Paleolithic era man was also an inhabitant of North Manchuria".
One of the most famous articles VY. Tolmacheva was devoted to a survey of Neolithic monuments in the vicinity of Hailar. She wrote with Elpidifor Innokentievich Titov, who at the end of 20th years, too, was in a strange land. E.I. Titov spring of 1928 for blowing to the west of the city assembled a collection of Neolithic stone products image. The place of discovery was subsequently re-examined along with Tolmachev and other colleagues. The area is extremely interesting - at the confluence of river. Imingol in Argun, a little more than a hundred kilometers from the route of the Russo-Chinese border. To clarify the characteristics and temporal characteristics of the findings the authors drew the materials of adjacent territories Baikal and Transbaikalia, and this greatly enhanced the analysis. It is noteworthy that in the annex to the article, provide references and remarks about the degree of scrutiny of the East Siberian Neolithic and the then existing theories about the origin of the Neolithic cultures of Asia. As we note, led to a sharp, albeit unsubstantiated rebuke on the other side of the border.
Tolmachev was the first researcher archaeological antiquities of the North-East China, which raised the question of entering the territory of the Scythian-Siberian cultural world. The first attempts to find traces of ancient culture here refers to the mid 20-ies, but there were few results. More successful was the experience P.K. Kozlov in Northern Mongolia, where they discovered the famous Noyon-ulinskie mounds. Tolmachev put forward the thesis that the influence of Scythian culture spread further to the south and east, and she in turn also subjected to a counter influence from the Chinese culture. In favor of this, according to Vladimir Jakovljevic, indicating the presence of Chinese products in the mounds Noyon-Ula and objects from the collection of bronzes in Shaanxi Province. Tolmachev provides details on some findings from the Liaodong Peninsula and the Shenyang area to the basin of the Argun River, which he believed were the Scythian time. Among them are three-lobed bronze arrowheads and two-handed bronze cauldron on a pallet. However, the researcher left for future decision the question of the pathways of objects Scythian culture in Manchuria: through Mongolia or from medium-Ural region in Siberia.
Another cluster of issues of interest to Tolmacheva, was connected with the study of the capital of Upper chzhurchzheney - Settlement Baychen. In 1923, he visited his first. In 1927 he summed up his work, including those made earlier dating of the start of construction Baychena. In subsequent years, the study of the monument continued VV. Ponosov.
Vladimir Yakovlevich was very lucky archaeologist search engine. Much of it says something with which he generously shared their materials with colleagues. In the works of many Russian archaeologists and ethnographers Manchuria frequent references to Tolmachyova as a discoverer of new locations, or the materials of his duties.
The political situation in Manchuria deteriorated. In the mid-30th years Vladimir Yakovlevich left Harbin. The date of departure with certainty we could not. Constantine Afanasievich Zheleznyakov remembered that it was 1935 or 1936. The last years of his life Tolmachev lived in Shanghai. For those funds that he had left to serve on the CER. Unfortunately, no information about this period of life we are not yet available.
In 1942, Mr.. VY. Tolmachev received Soviet citizenship and went home with his wife. But return he was not destined. On the way home he died and was buried in China. His final resting place is unknown.
The author expresses his sincere gratitude to Svetlana Nikolaevna Panin (National History Museum, Mr.. Ekaterinburg, Russia) for any previous material on the life and work VY. Tolmacheva in the pre-October period, as well as employees of the State Archives of the Sverdlovsk region for their assistance in working with the fund researcher. Invaluable assistance was provided to employees of the State Archive of the Chita region, allowing the discovery of new documents on the presence VY. Tolmacheva in Chita (these data are being prepared for publication). Sincere thanks to Natalia Drobotushenko for giving information on the history Ghino. Important role in the present study is ongoing cooperation with colleagues from the North-East China, including Wang Dehou, Tang Ying-jeou and Zhang Taisha (r. Harbin); Shushan Lin and Yao Feng (r. Changchun). A number of useful comments during the preparation of the manuscript were made AA. Formozov. Special thanks to Vitaly п•п©пTяLп¦п+п+п¦пTя+я¬ Laricheva, which inspired my research on the history of Russian archaeological and local studies of North China.
The work was supported Rossiyskogo Humanitarian Scientific Foundation, grant 98-01-00413.
Jobs GACHO held solely by financial support from the Open Society Institute (grant TAB857).
1.Tan Ying-jeou. Russian scientific societies Heilongjiang until liberation and their archaeological activities. / / Beyfan venu, 1986.2. S. 24-30 / in kit.yaz. /; collection of translated materials on archeology and ethnography of Heilongjiang. V.1. Harbin, 1991 / in the whale. lang. /. In addition, a number of translations of articles published by Russian researchers in Harbin before the war journal "Venu Beyfan". According to managing editor of the publication of Van Dehou, the practice of such publications will continue.
2. Alkin SV. Archaeological and ethnographic research VV. Ponosov in Manchuria (a biography of the researcher) / / Second reading behalf of GI. Nevel. Khabarovsk, 1990. P.113-117, translated the article into the Chinese language have been published in magazines Lygia yu Kaogi sinsi (Changchun, 1990.2. S. 113-115. Per. Lin Shushan) and "Beyfan venu" (Harbin, 1991.2, with. 111-112. Per. Zhang Taisha).
3.Alkin SV. VY. Tolmachev in China (1922-1942) / / Second Bersovskie reading. Ekaterinburg, 1994. - P.18-21.
Brother Nicholas is constantly involved in the excavation VY. Tolmacheva. In 1902 he enrolled in the Tomsk Institute of Technology, after graduating, he moved his permanent residence in g. Irkutsk.
4.Zorina LI. Onesimus Egorovich Claire. 1845-1920. M., 1989.
5.Rukopis not published. Stored in a private fund VY. Tolmacheva in the JI-AP, f.139, op. 1, 14.
6.Katalog now lost. 7.Drevnosti East Urals. Vyp.1. / / Notes of Wole, Vol XXXII, 1913, No.2. , Ibid, Vol XXXIV, 1914, the third edition was published only in 1927, ibid, Vol XL.
Subsequent events have only confirmed this. Wole has been eliminated, many colleagues Tolmacheva repressed.
8.Obzor of Transbaykal department and WGI Regional Museum of. AK. Kuznetsova for 30 years (1894-1924). Chita, 1924. P.61.
9.Tam same. P.64, 69,70
10.Tam same. P.76.; Far truth, 26, 8.12.1920 (GACHO, f.R-1545, op.1, 1, l.20ob.).
11.Tam same. S. 81.
12.Tam same. S. 81-82.
13.Otchet activity Ghino in Chita for the 1921-22 academic year. Chita, 1922. - P. 8. Information obtained from the publication N.E. Drobotushenko (Museum of National Education, Mr.. Chita).
14.V. Tolmachev. Subjects' bone age "of the Eastern Siberia / / Communications of the State Academy of History of Material Culture. T.P.L., 1929. S. 334-338.
15.Okladnikov A.P. Shilkinskaya cave - a monument of the ancient culture of the headwaters of the Amur / / Materials and Research on archeology. 86.1960. C.9. One of these burials is indeed a neolithic. Others can be dated to the early Iron Age.
16.Tsit. By: Khokhlov AN. Manchuria on the eve of Xinhai Revolution: evidence budding writer / / Society and State in China. 22 nd Scientific Conference. M., 1991. CH.1.S.220.