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Johann Friedrich Overbeck

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Biography Johann Friedrich Overbeck
Johann Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869). In the artistic development of the second half of the XIX century a new phase usually begins with the fact that a small group of artists united to oppose the official academy and work together to seek new opportunities in the arts. Widely known examples of Pre-Raphaelites in England, the Impressionists in France, the Wanderers in Russia.
. But the first time it happened in the beginning of the century, when in 1809, six German artists who studied in Vienna, - F. Overbeck, F. Pforr, Vintergerst, J. Zutter, D
. L. Vogel, H. L. Hottinger, dissatisfied with the academic system, have formed a union, called them "Union St.. Luka. The role of head of the art "brotherhood" from the beginning played Friedrich Overbeck.

. Their protest against the academic art as nesamobytnogo based on an eclectic learning and copying the samples taken, was prepared by the development of romantic aesthetics, ideas VG Wackenroder, L. Tieck, F
. Schlegel.

Romantic Aesthetics "istorizirovala" the ideal of art, realized he was not like I vnelichnostnuyu timeless norm, but as the product of a certain age and environment, its moral. social and religious backgrounds.

Thus, it was almost completely rethink the art of Raphael romantics. Rafael in their view was not the first in a series of classics, . for centuries repeating, and to vary his style, . a man of his time, . surrounded by close to him in spirit artists, . such as Francesco Francia, . Fra Angelico, . Pietro Perugino, . sincerely and directly expressing the spiritual content of that extraordinary era,
. The uniqueness is seen Raphael no longer in the integrity of the formal mastery, but in a wonderful organic quality and originality, as it were "descended from heaven" (the version Wackenroder - appears before the artist in the divine vision) of the ideal.

. Another central figure of romantic aesthetics - is Albrecht Dц+rer
. He is a romantic consciousness in the halo of the historic environment Nuremberg XVI century, . where life was still imbued with sincere religious piety, . and art involved in good faith, . precisely craft, . creating works, . complete concentration of inner strength, . which manifested clarity, . hardness, . depth of the German national character.,

. This historical insight into classical art made for the romantic artist senseless taken up in the academies of its external forms
. Overbeck and his followers felt the need to get close to the old masters in the spirit, "reincarnate" in them, something to repeat their spiritual and life experiences.

For this purpose, and was formed "Union St.. Luke, in the likeness of the ancient guilds, which were under the patronage of this saint. In 1810 the artists moved to Rome. But there they are not interested in antiquity, and he drew them as the homeland and the focus of Christian art. Artists settled in the cells of an abandoned monastery of San Isidoro. A few years Overbeck - and after him and others - converted to Catholicism. In Rome, they have been called "nazareytsami" - for religion and the manner of wearing long hair parted in the middle of the split, which also introduced Overbeck. Leading a solitary life in a monastery, nazareytsy built his ministry in the art of spiritual service level. This new mission of art was the theme of their conversations on the evening "meetings", it is often served as the theme of their work. Thus, one of the motives which have developed in the drawings of Overbeck and Pforr, a composition, in which Raphael and Dц+rer portrayed in the posture of the saints at the throne of Art.

. Durer and Raphael, a national ideal and the ideal of all mankind, the problem of reuniting them - another important theme that emerged in the circle nazareytsev
. Franz Pforr, fascinated by the old German painting, preferring to call himself "with Albert Maina, as if identifying himself with Dц+rer (Albrecht of Nuremberg). Overbeck, who worked in the soft italyaniziruyuschey manner, was considered by nazareytsev 'new incarnation of Raphael. Thus the friendship of these two artists, Pforra and Overbeck, became symbolic. This friendship and the related idea of the Italian and German unification began Franz Pforr dedicated symbolic picture-diptych "Shulamith and Mary". Somewhat later (after the early death Pforra) Overbeck expressed the same idea more simply and clearly in his famous painting "Germany and Italy". He is portrayed by these countries in the form of two girls - one in a laurel wreath and with the face of the Madonna by Raphael, the other wearing a crown of weed with golden hair and wearing a suit dyurerovskoy era - gently bowed to each other. Particular care was working artist over expressive motif of intertwining their hands (on this subject where there is a separate, very thin figure-sketch). Overbeck himself wrote in a letter, . that Germany and Italy - are the two principle, . that, . so to speak, . opposite, . completely alien to one another, but my mission was and remains - to connect them together, . at least in the outer form of my creations.,

. Composition of Nazareth brotherhood gradually changed
. Pforr died, some artists have returned to Germany, their place was taken by other. Painting nazareytsev became a success, allowing artists began to receive orders for monumental paintings, which served all together, focusing on the time of Raphael's frescoes. Overbeck owned frescoes on subjects from the life of Joseph in the house Vartoldi and composition "Rooms Tasso" in the casino Massimo.

But the contemporaries of the most esteemed religious paintings Overbeck. In the eyes of his countrymen (as well as many foreigners, . visited him in Rome) the name of Overbeck was associated with the revival of religious painting, . For works of Overbeck - such, . a painting "Christ's Entry into Jerusalem" (1824), . impression which, . perhaps, . reflected in the "Appearance of Christ to the people" by Alexander Ivanov, . - Has been characterized by serious, . emotionality and scale, . long-lost religious art.,

. A kind of creative credo Overbeck is his painting "The Triumph of Religion in the Arts" (1831-1840).

. Composition, like Raphael fresco "Dispute" is constructed of two tiers - the heavenly and earthly
. In the center of the clouds - Madonna is writing - symbolizes the poetry, Biblical characters and saints around her - the other arts (St.. Luke - painting, King David with the harp - music and t. etc.). Below grouped artists: some of them see a reflection of the heavenly vision in a bowl "fountain of life", others simply talk to each other. Near Raphael, Leonardo, Fra Angelico can see Durer, Holbein, the ring master of the Cologne Cathedral. In the foreground of Nicolo Pisano examines and shows students a Christian sarcophagus, established on the ruins of ancient statues. Found here a place for nazareytsev: Cornelius, Veit and most Overbeck ... Painting was a great success, for the Russian heir (the future Alexander II) his mentor VAZhukovsky found it necessary to order a repeat.

Overbeck has reached such a degree of popularity in Rome, that it could already be called a glory. His short visit to Munich in 1831 turned into a triumphal procession through the streets of the city. Overbeck's Center became one of the sights of Rome.

An interesting evidence of perception Overbeck as a person of his contemporaries. The most eloquent of them - a pencil portrait, executed one of nazareytsev - KA-F.Forom. It affects one feature: Overbeck is depicted with eyes closed. But this in his face expressed no relaxation of sleep, and a large internal meetings, as if giving up on the outside world, it is the inner eye is immersed in some absorbing his vision. The submission of romantics in this clairvoyance Rafael was his image of Madonna. And much later, one of the Russian contemporaries wrote about the artist: "The features of his face had the expression which is the soul of his works. They say that in his youth he looked like Raphael, now an old man like a monk of the monastery of San Marco in Florence, from which the works of both are similar works of Overbeck.

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