Vladimir II Monomakh( From the kind of Rurik)
Comments for Vladimir II Monomakh
Biography Vladimir II Monomakh
From the kind of Rurik. The son of Vsevolod I Yaroslavich and Greek princess Anna (according to other sources - Mary) Konstantinovny. Genus. in 1053, Mr.. Kn. Rostov in 1066 - 1073 he. Kn. Smolensky in 1073 - 1078 he. Kn. Chernigov in 1078 - 1093 he. Kn. Perei in 1094 - 1113 he. Conducted. kn. Kiev in 1113-1125 he.
1) with 1074 g. Guida, daughter of King Harald;
2) unknown (+ 8 May 1107);
3) kn. Euphemia (+ June 11, 1126).
+ 19 May 1125, Mr..
(cm. genealogical table II)
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Since childhood Vladimir differed desperate bravery. At sundown of his life in the "Instructions for Children", he recalled the tumultuous days of youth. "We love the hunt, animals are often caught with his father - he wrote. - His hands in the thick forests, I was tying up wild horses at once on several. Twice a stubborn ox metal on my horns, deer horn, elk trampled underfoot) boar tore the sword from my thigh. Bear pierced the saddle, once threw a wild beast, and felled a horse with me. How many times I fell off a horse! Twice broke his head, damaged his hands and feet, not valuing life in his youth, and not sparing of her head ". He soon got used to execute complex, childish orders. Being just thirteen years old, he was sent to his father to rule in the distant Rostov. Then came martial campaigns and battles, which were without number.
In September 1078, when he heard about the defeat of his father on Sozhitse Vladimir rushed to his aid in Pereslavl and barely made his way to the warriors through Polovtzy which Oleg Svyatoslavich and Boris Vyacheslavich in the set led to Russia. Vsevolod joined with Izyaslav Kiev and began to Chernigov, where if there was not Oleg, nor Boris. Chernigov defended soundly. Vladimir and his entourage made his way to the eastern gate of the city, set fire to the wall "low city", and drove the defenders of the Kremlin. On October 3 he struggled with Oleg and Boris at Nezhatina Field. In this battle, killed the Grand Duke Izyaslav. Vsevolod sat on the reign in Kiev, and Vladimir sat beside him in Chernigov.
In 1079 Vyacheslav Polotsk Polotsk ravaged Smolensk. Monomakh from Chernigov chased him, but did not find near Smolensk, followed in his footsteps and fought Polotsk district. Then he went to Chernigov to Minsk, suddenly attacked the city and did not leave here nor chelyad, no cattle, in his own words.
In 1080, Vladimir subdued Pereyaslav Torks. But much more trouble brought Vladimir Polovtsy, with whom he had 12 fights in one only reign of Vsevolod. In 1081 khans Asaduk and Saouk fought under Starodubov. Vladimir from Chernigov and Khan Belkatginom attacked them near Novgorod Seversky, the squad beaten and taken away full, but soon after, in 1082, went to Sulu to Priluki, broke a lot of Polovtsy and among the two Khans - Fall and Sakzyu
. In 1084, Vladimir drove Princes Rostislav from Vladimir Volhynia and planted there earlier Knyazhego Yaropolk Izyaslavich, . then, . Yaropolk when he quarreled with Vsevolod and began to gather troops against, . and chased him out of Vladimir, . in Lutsk conquered his mother, . wife, . squad, and all property,
. In 1087 Yaropolk reconciled with Vladimir, but soon died.
In 1093 Vsevolod died at the hands of Vladimir. According to historical records, Vladimir began to think so: "If you sit at the desk of his father, then I'll have to fight with Svyatopolk Izyaslavich, as the table that formerly belonged to his father". and reasoning so that he sent to Vladimir Svyatopolk in Turov, and he went to Chernihiv. No sooner had established herself on the throne of Izhevsk, Svyatopolk started an unsuccessful war with Polovtsy, which ended with the defeat of Russian Stugna. Vladimir, who lost in this battle, brother, Rostislav, with tears brought the remnants of the brigade in Chernigov. The following 1094 Oleg Svyatoslavich brought under Chernigov with many Polovtsy. Vladimir struggled with him for eight days and does not let Polovtsy in jail, but finally, sorry for the Christians, burning villages and monasteries, and saying: "Do not boast of vile, gave Oleg of Chernihiv, and went to the desk of his father in Pereslavl. At the exit from Chernigov in the squad he was not a hundred people, counting spouses and children. Vladimir drove her from Chernigov in Pereyaslavl through the shelves Polovtsian. Steppe men licking on them like wolves, "says Vladimir himself, but did not dare to attack. In 1096, Vladimir, together with Svyatopolk went to war against Oleg Svyatoslavich and drove him out of Chernigov and Starodub. And then hurried back to his principality, which ruined the Polovtsian Khan Tugorkan. Vladimir skhodu hit the enemy. Polovtsi fled, and died Tugorkan. In the meantime, struggled with his son Oleg Vladimirov, Izyaslav under Murom. The young prince was defeated and fell in battle. Oleg took Suzdal, Rostov, but soon the eldest son, Vladimir, Mstislav, defeated him near Rostov, returned it all lost, and then took the Ryazan and Murom. Do all this, he tried to persuade his father to make peace with Oleg, and Vladimir Oleg wrote a letter offering peace. In 1097 Svyatopolk and Monomakh gathered all the Russian princes in Liubech for peace. The princes said to each other: "Why should we destroy the Russian land, incurring give themselves a quarrel? A Polovtsians plunder our land and rejoice that we are torn strife. Unite the same and from then on will, frankly protect the Russian land. And let everyone owns their paternal ". In fact, all the princes kissing each other cross, vowing: "If we who encroach on another's parish, be it against him cross all the honest and the Russian land". It made up my mind, everything went back home. But hardly had the princes to disperse, Svyatopolk Izyaslavich and Davyd I. seized Vasilko Rostislavich, was taken in chains to Belgorod, and there was blinded. Instigator of the crime was Davyd. Vladimir heard about this, was horrified and immediately sent for Oleg Davydov and Svyatoslavich and opposed Svjatopolka. Vladimir of Kiev sent to his stepmother, and her Metropolitan Nicholas, that they begged the prince not to start new feuds and not ruin the Russian land. After listening to them, Vladimir grieved and said: "Verily, our fathers and grandfathers have kept the Russian land. We want it to ruin ". And heed pleas Princess. After the prince began to send letters and made peace with Svyatopolk. With Davyd same Igorevich Sviatopolk Rostislavich and fought for three years and finally in August 1100 forced him to appear at the princely court in Vitichev. This also came Monomakh, Svyatopolk, Oleg Davydov and Svyatoslavichy. Accused Davydov Vladimir. Davyd had nothing to respond to his words, and the princes had agreed to rob him Vladimir Volinskiy and put in Buzhske.
In 1103, Vladimir Monomakh persuaded Svjatopolka Izyaslavich go more like Polovtsy. The two senior princes joined other. Polovtsi expected Russian troops, but were routed in battle. However, the war with Polovtsy still far from over. In 1107 Bonyak captured horse herds in Pereyaslavl, then came with a lot of other Khans and got on the Court. Sviatopolk, Vladimir, Oleg and four other princes hit them suddenly with a cry; Polovtsians afraid of fear could not have put Styag and fled: Who had time to grab a horse - a horse, and who walk. Princes drove them to the shores Khorol and took enemy camp. In the same year Monomakh Sviatopolk entered the khans Aepoy Osenevechem and Aepoy Girgenivichem, made peace with them and took their daughters to marry their sons. In 1110 Monomah Sviatopolk and Davyd Svyatoslavich again went to the Polovtsy, but the campaign was over nothing - the princes came to the warrior, and returned back due to frost and horse of case. But the next in 1111 on the initiative of Monomove princes went to war against Polovtsy to Don. There were Monomakh, Svyatopolk Izyaslavich and Davyd Svyatoslavich with his sons. Like eight years ago, the company was a complete success, and the princes returned with a large full.
This campaign was the last major event in the reign of Svyatopolk Izyaslavich. After Easter, he started to hurt and died April 16, 1113. April 17 Kievites gathered at the Chamber and sent to Vladimir Monomakh, saying: "Go, Prince, on the table, his father and grandfather". Vladimir greatly mourned the death of Svyatopolk, but did not go to Kiev. Kievans also looted yard tysyatskogo Putyata, attacked the Jews living in Kiev, and looted their property. The revolt was triggered by the fact that the people of Kiev were heavily oppressed by usury. Boyars, fearing that without the prince will not cope with the people, they sent another request to Vladimir: "Go, Prince of Kiev. If you do not go, then a lot of evil will. Not only Putjatin yard, or constables, or plunder the Jews, but also the attack on your daughter, and the boyars, and the monasteries'. Hearing this, Vladimir went to Kiev and sat on the throne. All the people were happy about this, and the rebellion lay. Wanting to alleviate the plight of the poor, . Monomakh gathered at Berestovskii court nobles the boyars and tysyatskih and, . consulting with, . identified, . the lender, . taking three times with a single debtor so-called tretnye growth (interest), . already deprived and the rest of their money (or capital),
. Monomakh included this law in the statute Yaroslav.
In 1116, Vladimir with his sons, as well as Davyd Svyatoslavich sons Oleg and Svyatoslav went against Gleb Vseslavich Minsk. Gleb sought peace, left the city with their children and entourage, and promised to obey all of Vladimir. (In 1120 a new fault Gleb withdraw from Minsk to Kiev and resulted in the bonds.) In 1118, Vladimir other princes went to Vladimir Volhynia against Yaroslav Svyatopolchicha and reconciled with him after a two-month siege. But peace did not last long. Yaropolk expelled from his wife, daughter Monomakhovo, and, uniting with the Poles, started a new war with the father. Vladimir in 1119 for the second time went on Yaropolk and drove him out of Vladimir Volhynia, who gave his son Roman.
Proknyazhiv in the capital for thirteen years, Vladimir, died May 19, 1125 and was buried in Kiev Sofia near the grave of his father. Contemporaries, and descendants of the highly praised his name, because it was the prince to work a lot for the Russian land. Monomakh himself wrote in his "Testament": "All of my trips was 83, and other unimportant I do not remember. I have made with Polovtsy 19 peace treaties, captured more than 100 best of their princes and released from captivity, and more than two hundred executed and sank in the rivers ".
All the monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 brief biographies. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 1999.
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Vladimir II Monomakh (1053, Kiev? - 1125, ibid) - led. Prince of Kiev in 1113. The son of Prince Vsevolod Yaroslavich and Mary, daughter of the Byzantine Emperor. Constantine IX Monomakh, on behalf of Vladimir-cerned, and was nicknamed. Received a good education, which enabled him to perfectly navigate the lit-re. Childhood Vladimir passed in Pereslavl, where he learned the terrible raids steppe. Changing at least five specific cities, fighting in different places, he realized the danger of princely strife and the Polovtsian raids. In 1078, Vladimir was involved in a battle on Nezhatina Field, where his father had made in an internecine struggle in Kiev, and he was sent to Chernigov, where he reigned in 1078 - 1094. Lived happily with his wife Gita, an English princess, daughter of King Harald, and with his first-born Mstislav. Teshilsya hunting, went skiing, but those years had not been for Vladimir serene. He had to help his father in the fight against Polovtsy. In 1094 - 1113 Pereyaslavl prince of the principality, subjected to constant raids Polovtsy. He tried to princely congresses agree to a cease strife ( "let every man holds his paternal) and the joint resistance to the enemy. Successful military campaigns against Vladimir Polovtsy made it in the eyes of man, capable of protecting the interests of all Russia. In 1103, 1109, 1110, 1111, under his leadership rus. troops reached the Sea of Azov, creating the glory of his commander. After the uprising in Kiev in 1113 feudal upper classes offered to the Grand so popular Vladimir. In 60 years, becoming the lead. Prince, energetic and intelligent Vladimir rules with a firm hand, avoiding quarrels, with the help of his sons. When Vladimir and his son Mstislav created the most comprehensive set of laws - Extensive Russian Truth "- deal with questions of ownership, inheritance, the legal status of women, which limited the rights of the prince against the aristocracy, etc.. Realizing the need for moral authority for the collection of crumbling of the country, under Vladimir was introduced the cult of Boris and Gleb, supported chronicles. Important role played by their own literary. works of Vladimir, who had an outstanding writer's gift. They were created "Instructions" and "Letter to Vladimir Monomakh Oleg Svyatoslavich" - vivid examples of ancient lit-ry. Activities Vladimir brought together most of the territory of Russia and push the start time of feudal fragmentation.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
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(cm. genealogical table II)
Vladimir was the son of Vsevolod Yaroslavich and Anne, daughter of Byzantine Emperor Constantine Monomach from him and he got his nickname. In 1078 he became the prince of Chernigov, but the city as a result of feuds he had in 1094 to cede Oleg Svyatoslavich. Then Monomakh settled in the principality Pereyaslavl. With exceptional organizational skills, he led campaigns against Polovtsy in 1103, 1107, 1111, respectively.
Monomakh initiated congresses of princes. He called his family for peace and harmony. Monomah reign was favorable period for the development of Russia. Under his authority were re-grouped to three-quarters of the Russian lands, stopped princely feuds.
Monomakh known not only as a wise and astute politician, but as a legislator. When it was created so-called "Charter of Monomakh". By the time the government Monomah applies for the initial chronicles Abbot Sylvester (1115). He combined in one set of several legends. In the Russian language was translated much of Greek literature.
. Monomakh died May 19, 1125 near erected by his order of the church on the River Alta (where once killed Svyatopolk "Damned" Prince Boris).
. The body of Vladimir Monomakh brought to Kiev and was buried in the church of Hagia Sophia
. "The people wept for him, like children crying for their father or mother," - it is written in the annals.