Ivan III of Russia Great( From the kind of grand dukes of Moscow)
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Biography Ivan III of Russia Great
Ivan III of Russia Veliky (knee Ruric 18)
From the kind of Moscow led. kn. Son of Basil II and Prince Dark Vasilyevich. Mary maloyaroslanskoy Yaroslavovna. Genus. January 22. 1440 g. Conducted. kn. Moscow and All Russia in 1462 - 1506 he.
1), 1446. Grand daughter. kn. Boris Alexandrovich of Tver, Grand. kn. Maria (+ 15 Feb.. 1468), son of Ivan Young.
2), 12 November 1472, Mr.. Byzantine princess Sophia Fominichna Palaeologus (+ April 7. 1503).
+ 27 October. 1506 g.
Wanting to legitimize the new order of succession to the throne and to deprive the hostile princes every excuse for sedition, Basil II in his lifetime had called Ivan the Great Prince. All letters written on behalf of the two great princes. By 1462, when Basil died, 22-year-old Ivan was already a lot of people had seen, with the established character, ready to address difficult questions of state. He had a sharp temper and a cold heart, characterized by rationality, love of power and ability to persevere to the chosen target.
In 1463, under pressure from Moscow, gave up their fiefdom princes of Yaroslavl. After that Ivan began a determined struggle against Novgorod. It has long been hated by Moscow, but independently go to war with Russia was considered a dangerous. Therefore Novgorodians resorted to last resort - was invited to the reign of the Lithuanian Prince Michael Olelkovicha. However, was concluded and a contract with King Casimir, on which Novgorod acted under his supreme authority, retreated from Moscow, and Casimir undertook to guard it from attacks by the Grand Duke. Learning of this, Ivan III sent to Novgorod ambassadors with gentle but firm speeches. Ambassadors recalled that Novgorod - paternal Ivan, and. It does not demand from him more than what they demanded his ancestors.
Moscow expelled the ambassadors of Novgorod to shame. Thus it was necessary to start a war. 13 July 1471 on the banks of the river Shelon Novgorod were routed. Ivan III, who arrived after the battle with the main army, moved to produce weapons of Novgorod. Meanwhile in Lithuania there was no help. The people of Novgorod worried and sent his archbishop to ask for the Grand Duke for mercy. How condescending to the strong intercession of those responsible for the Metropolitan, his brothers and the boyars, the Grand Duke of Novgorod announced his mercy: "I give my unloved, restrain him a sword and a storm was in the land of Novgorod, and dismissed without full pay for". We signed a contract: Novgorod renounced connection with the Lithuanian sovereign, gave the Grand Duke of Dvina Land and undertook to pay the "spear" (tribute). In all other respects, this contract was a repetition of what entered under Basil II..
In 1467 the Grand Duke was widowed, and two years later began to woo a niece of the last Byzantine emperor, Princess Sophia Fominichna Palaeologus. Negotiations dragged on for three years. November 12, 1472 bride finally arrived in Moscow. The wedding took place on the same day. Marriage of the Moscow tsar with the Greek princess was an important event in Russian history. He opened the way relations with the West Muscovy. On the other hand, along with Sophia at the Muscovite court to approve some orders and customs of the Byzantine court. The ceremonial was majestic and solemn. Grand Duke himself was exalted in the eyes of. They noticed, . that Ivan after his marriage to the niece of the Byzantine emperor was the autocratic monarch at the Moscow Grand Duke's table, he first got the nickname of Ivan the Terrible, . because it was for the princes squads monarch, . require unquestioning obedience, and severely punished for disobedience,
. He rose to the majestic heights unattainable, . before which Boyar, . prince and the descendant of Rurik and Gedemina were reverently bow along with the last of his subjects, the first wave of Ivan the Terrible head seditious princes and boyars, lay down on the block,
. It was at that time, Ivan III was to inspire fear among their kind. Women say contemporaries, fainted from his angry eyes. The court, in fear for their lives must have been in his leisure hours to amuse him, and when he sat in the chair, gave himself up to slumber, they still stood around, not daring to cough or make a wrong move, so as not to wake him up. Contemporaries and immediate descendants attributed this change dictates of Sofia, and we have no right to reject their testimony. Herberstein, who was in Moscow during the reign of the son of Sophia, spoke about her: "It was a remarkably shrewd woman, at her suggestion, the Grand Duke did a lot".
First of all, continued gathering of the Russian land. In 1474, Ivan bought out the remainder of the princes of Rostov yet they have half of the Rostov principality. But far more important event was the final conquest of Novgorod. In 1477, arrived in Moscow, two representatives of the Novgorod Veche - Podvoisky Nazar and deacon Zahar. In their petition they called Ivan and his son, sovereigns, whereas before all the people of Novgorod to call them the masters. Grand Duke jumped at it and on April 24 sent his messengers to ask: what the state wants to Velikiy Novgorod? Chamber of Novgorod to meet, . not called the Grand Duke and the Emperor had not sent to him after talking about some new state, . entire Novgorod, . opposite, . wants, . all remained without changes, . in antiquity,
. Ivan came to the Metropolitan with the news of perjury Novgorodians: "I do not want their state themselves in order to send, and is now locked and we falsely accuse. Also announced mothers, brothers, boyars, and the magistrates, as a general blessing and advice, armed to the people of Novgorod. Moscow troops were disbanded across the Novgorod land from Zavolochya to Narva and had to burn the human settlements and to destroy the inhabitants. To protect their freedom by people of Novgorod had no material or moral force. They sent ambassadors to ask the ruler of the Grand Duke of peace and truth.
Ambassadors met the Grand Duke Sytynskom churchyard, near Ilmen. The Grand Duke did not take them, and ordered his boyars to provide them with the type of fault Novgorod. In conclusion, the boyars said: "If Novgorod want to beat my forehead, then he knows how he beat the brow". After that, the Grand Duke crossed Ilmen and was three miles from Novgorod. Novgorodians once again sent their ambassadors to Ivan, but the Muscovite boyars, as before, did not allow them to the grand duke, saying all the same cryptic words: "If Novgorod want to beat my forehead, then he knows how he beat the brow". Moscow forces captured Novgorod monasteries, surrounded the whole city, Novgorod was closed from all sides. Again went to the lord ambassadors. The Grand Duke, and this time did not allow them to her, . but his nobles now bluntly declared: "Veche bell and not be, . mayor not to be, . Novgorod State to keep the Grand Duke in the same way, . he keeps the state in the lower ground, . and manage its governors in Novgorod ",
. During this reassuring them that the Grand Duke would not take away from the land of the boyars and will not show people from Novgorod.
Six days passed in the excitement. The Novgorod boyars, in order to preserve their estates, they decided to sacrifice freedom, the people was unable to defend themselves with arms. With the ambassadors of the Lord again came to the camp of the Grand Duke, and announced that Novgorod agrees to all conditions. Ambassadors asked to write a contract and approve it on both sides of the cross with a kiss. But they were told that neither the grand duke, or his boyars, nor the governors of the cross to kiss will not. Ambassadors were detained, the siege lasted. Finally, in January 1478, when the townspeople were severely affected by hunger, Ivan demanded that he be given half Vladychnoye and monastic townships and all Novotorzhskaya parish whose they were not. Novgorod all agreed. January 15 all the citizens were sworn to absolute obedience to the Grand Duke. Assembly bell was removed and sent to Moscow.
In March 1478, Ivan III returned to Moscow, successfully completing all work. But in the autumn of 1479 he was told that many of Novgorod sent from Kazimierz, named for him, and the king promised to come with shelves, and communicates with Ahmad, Khan of the Golden Horde, and called him to Moscow. Have been implicated in the conspiracy brothers Ivan. The situation was a hardball, and, contrary to his custom, Ivan began to act quickly and decisively. He concealed his true intention and spread the rumor that goes to the Germans, the attackers pogda to Pskov, even his son did not know the true purpose of the campaign. Novgorodians meanwhile, relying on the assistance Casimir, drove grand governors, resumed veche order, elected mayor and tysyatskogo. Grand Duke came to town with an Italian architect and engineer Aristotle Fioravanti, who placed the gun against Novgorod: his gun fired accurately. Meanwhile, the army seized the princely settlements, and Novgorod found himself under siege. In the town riots broke. Many people realize that there is no hope for protection, and hastened to advance into the camp of the Grand Duke. The leaders of the conspiracy, being unable to defend themselves, they sent to John asked "saved", ie, letters of safe passage for talks. "I saved you, - answered the Grand Duke, - I saved the innocent, I am your Emperor, opened the gate, I will come - do not offend anyone innocent". The people opened the gates and Ivan went into the church of St.. Sofia, prayed and then moved into the house novoizbannogo mayor Efrera Medvedev. Meanwhile, Ivan informants provided a list of the main conspirators. On this list, he ordered the capture and torture fifty people. Under torture they showed that the lord was with them in collusive, lord seized Jan. 19, 1480 and without the ecclesiastical court were taken to Moscow where he was imprisoned in the Miracle Monastery. Archiepiscopal treasury went to the emperor. The accused have spoken or others, and so was caught a hundred people. They were tortured and then executed all. The property described was executed by the sovereign. After that, more than a thousand families of merchants and knights were expelled and settled in Pereslavl, Vladimir, Yuriev, Murom, Rostov, Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod. A few days after the Moscow army drove more than seven thousand families from Novgorod to Moscow ground. All movable and immovable property resettled became the property of Grand Duke. Many of the deportees died on the way, as they drove in the winter, not allowing to come; survivors resettled in different suburbs and cities: the Novgorod knights were given seats, instead of them settlers in the land of Novgorod Muscovites. Similarly, instead of the merchants, exiled in Moscow ground, the other was sent from Moscow to Novgorod.
Having settled in Novgorod, Ivan hurried to Moscow, came news that it moves Khan Great Horde, Achmat. In fact, Russia was independent of the Orda for many years, but formally the supreme power belonged to Ordyn khans. Russ grew stronger - Horde weakened, but remained a formidable force. In 1480 Ahmad Khan, on learning of the uprising brother Grand Duke and agreeing to act in concert with the Casimir of Lithuania, spoke at Moscow. Upon receiving the news of the movement Akhmat, Ivan sent regiments to the Oka, and he went to Kolomna. But Khan, . seeing, . that the Oka placed strong shelves, . took the direction to the west, . the Lithuanian soil, . To get into Moscow ownership through Ugra; Ivan then told his son Ivan and his brother Andrei younger one to rush to Ugra, the princes of executing a warrant, . came to the river before the Tartars, . took the fords and ferry,
. Ivan, a man is not brave, was in great confusion. This is evident from his orders and conduct. Wife, together with the treasury, he immediately sent to Beloozero, who gave an instruction to run further to the sea, if Khan will take to Moscow. He himself felt a great temptation to go after him, but was withheld by his entourage, especially Vassian, archbishop of Rostov. After spending some time some time on the Oka, Ivan ordered the burning of Kashira and went to Moscow, ostensibly for the Metropolitan Council and the boyars. Prince Daniel Kholmsk he gave the order for the first sending him from Moscow to go there too, along with the young Grand Prince Ivan. September 30, when Muscovites moved from the Kremlin to put him in a siege seat, suddenly saw the Grand Duke, who rode into town. People thought, . it's all over, . The Tatars are in the wake of Ivan, the crowd heard the complaint: "When you, . sovereign Grand Duke, . to reign over us in gentleness and meekness and hesitation, . then we rob vain, . and now he angered the king, . not paying him out, . Yes we claim to be king, and Tatars ",
. Ivan had to endure this insolence. He traveled to the Kremlin and was greeted with this ominous Vassian Rostov. "All Christian blood will fall on you for that, issuing Christianity, running away, the battle with the Tatars did not deliver and do not Beat them, - he said. - Why are you afraid of death? Not you immortal man, . death, but without the rock of death no man nor fowl, . nor zveyu; give me, . old, . army in the hands, . see, . grade I in front of his face Tartars! "Ashampoo Ivan did not go to his Kremlin courtyard, . and settled in the Red hamlet, . Hence, he sent orders to his son to go to Moscow, . but he decided the best,
. incur the wrath of his father than to go from the shore. "I shall die here, but her father will not go," - said he was Prince Kholmsk, who persuaded him to leave the army. He ustereg movement of Tatars, who wanted to secretly cross the Ugra and suddenly rush to Moscow: Tartars rescued from the coast with heavy losses.
Meanwhile, Ivan III, spent two weeks at Moscow, somewhat recovered from the fear, surrendered to the entreaties of the clergy and decided to go to the army. But before the Ugra did not get, and was in Kremenets in the river pool. Here, again, began to overcome his fear and it was decided to completely end the matter is already the world and sent to the Khan Ivan Tovarkova and gifts with a petition asking for a salary to withdraw away. Khan replied: "Zhaluyut Ivan, let him come to beat my forehead, as his fathers to our fathers went to the Horde". But the Grand Duke did not go
. Achmat, . which is not allowed for Ugra Moscow Regiment, . summer boasted: "God willing the winter for you: when all the rivers will, . a lot of roads will be in Russia. "Fearing the threat of execution, . Ivan, . Once it became Ugra, . October 26, . told his son and brother, Andrew, with all regiments to retreat to his Kremenets, . to fight the combined forces,
. But now, Ivan did not know the rest - he gave the order to retreat further to Borovsk, promising to give battle there. But Ahmad did not think to use the retreat of Russian troops. He stood on the Ugra until November 11, apparently waiting for the promised assistance to the Lithuanian. But then began severe frosts, so it was impossible to endure Tatars were naked, barefoot, ragged, in the words of the chronicler. The Lithuanians have not reached, abstract Crimeans attack, and Ahmad decided not to pursue the Russian farther north. He turned around and went back to the steppes. Contemporaries and descendants perceived as standing on the Ugra visible end of the Tartar yoke. An increase in the power of the Grand Duke, and at the same time markedly increased the brutality of his character. He became impatient and fast to massacre. What is more, the more consistent, braver old Ivan III expands its state and strengthened its undivided.
In 1483 Vereisky Duke bequeathed his Duchy of Moscow. Then came the long-time opponent of Moscow - Tver, in 1484 in Moscow learned that the Prince of Tver Mikhail Borisovich struck up friendships with Casimir Lithuanian and married a granddaughter of the last. Ivan III declared war on Michael. Muscovites took the Tver district, took and burned the town. Lithuanian aid is not, and Michael was forced to sue for peace. Ivan gave the world. Michael has promised not to have any relations with Casimir and horde. But in the same in 1485 was intercepted by courier Michael in Lithuania. This time the massacre was more and more violent. September 8 Muscovite troops surrounded Tver, 10 th were lit Posada, a 11-th Tver boyars, leaving their prince, came to the camp to Ivan and beat him humbly, asking to serve. Mikhail Borisovich night fled to Lithuania. Tver swore allegiance to Ivan, who put her in her son.
In 1489 they were finally attached a Vyatka. Moscow troops took Khlynov almost without resistance. The leaders were beaten vyatchan whip and executed, the remaining residents are derived from Vyatka land Borovsk, Aleksin, Kremenets, and their place in Moscow sent to landowners of land.
Just lucky Ivan was in the wars with Lithuania. On the southern and western border under the rule of Moscow now and then turn the small Orthodox princes with their fiefdoms. First referred Prince Odoevsky, then Vorotynsky and Belevsky. These petty princes ever entered into a quarrel with their Lithuanian neighbors - in fact, on the southern borders did not stop the war, but also in Moscow and Vilnius for a long time to keep the semblance of peace. In 1492, he died Casimir Lithuanian, table turned to his son Alexander. Ivan with Mengli-Girei immediately began a war against. Things went happily to Moscow. Governors of provinces have Meshchovsk, Serpeysk, Vyazma; Vyazemsky, Mezetskie, Novosilsky princes and other Lithuanian owners willy-nilly over to the service of the Moscow State. Alexander realized that it would be difficult to fight him at once with Moscow and with Mengli-Girei; he wanted to marry the daughter of Ivan, Yelena, and thus to arrange a lasting peace between the two rivalry States. Negotiations were sluggish until January 1494. Finally, peace was concluded, which Alexander gave Ivan parish referred to him princes. Then Ivan agreed to give her daughter to Alexandra, but the expected results of this marriage has not brought. In 1500, a strained relationship between father and son in law passed in the clear hostility on the new hits on the side of Moscow princes, improvised Lithuania. Ivan has sent his brother-razmetnuyu letter and after that sent troops to Lithuania. Crimeans, as usual, helped the Russian ratification. Many Ukrainian princes, to avoid ruin, hastened to under the rule of Moscow. In 1503, an armistice was signed, which Ivan maintain all conquered lands. Soon after this. Ivan died. Buried in Moscow in the Church of the Archangel Michael.
All the monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 brief biographies. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 1999.
Ivan III of Russia (1440 - 1505, Moscow) - led. Mosk. Duke from 1462. The eldest son of Basil II Vasil'evich Dark. Grew up in difficult times of feudal strife, gained early experience and joined the State. Cases. In 1452 formally personally led the army during the civil war. In 1456 along with his father already participate meaningfully in the management. Received by the testaments of the father's right to lead. reign, the first time since the invasion of Batu did not go to the Horde for the label, becoming the ruler of the territory of about 430 thousand. Q.. km. Continuing the policy of his father, Ivan III of force or diplomatic agreements, subordinated principality: Yaroslavl (1463), Rostov (1474), Tver (1485), Vyatka land (1489), etc.. In 1467 - 1469 successfully led military action against Kazan, having achieved its vassal. In 1471 a campaign against Novgorod, and thanks to a simultaneous strike on the city in several directions, the perfect professional warriors, defeated in the last feudal war in Russia, including the Novgorod lands of the Rus. gos Islands, and in 1478 Novgorod feudal republic ceased to exist and formally. In 1480 Horde Ahmad Khan moved an enormous army of Russia, wanting to re-subjugate the country, does not pay tribute to 1476. At that time Russia was at war nasev.-west. with the Livonian Order. Weakened the force of Ivan III feudal revolt of younger brothers. Besides Ahmad signed a contract with the Polish-Lithuanian king Kazimierz. Force the last Ivan III succeeded in neutralizing by the peace treaty with the Crimean khan Mengli-Girei. Since in Kolomna were shelves of Ivan III, Ahmad made a workaround, but an attempt to force p. Ugra failed. For the first time on the battlefield have been used in Russian. light field guns - the "food" and the Horde were repulsed by fords. Began "standing on the Ugra". It was not peaceful. A narrow river flying arrows, and the kernel. 9 - 11 November 1480 began a retreat and flee Akhmat. This victory meant the end of Ivan III the Mongol-Tatar yoke in Russia. The victory over foreign enemies and allowed. III to eliminate most of the principalities. After the wars with the Lithuanian led. principality (1487 - 1494, 1500 - 1503) for the Russia withdrew many Zap.-rus. city and land. Moscow became the capital of the new state-va, has acquired a new look. Churches and cathedrals built during the reign of Ivan Kalita, came to the dilapidated state and, therefore, was erected the new Assumption Cathedral and founded a new Archangel Cathedral, construction began on the new Kremlin's Faceted Chamber, the Cathedral of the Annunciation, etc.. Under Ivan III, . "Grand Prince of all Russia", . in Moscow there are many foreigners: the Italian and German builders, . Ambassadors of many countries, . with the f-eq established diplomatic relations, . Greek relatives niece Sophia Paleologos of the Byzantine emperor, . at a swarm-married Ivan III, . etc.,
. The court life became more complicated and ceremoniously. Strengthening the central government has demanded the creation of new government - orders. Appeared and the first legislative code of Eng. centralized state-va Sudebnik 1497. Attempt Ivan III secularization, ie. pass over to the State. power glebe ( "The Metropolitan and all rulers and all the monasteries and the whole village poimati to their soediniti"), and thus put the church under the control of power of the monarch failed. Ivan III was not adopted before the death of the schema, as did his great-grandfather, grandfather and father, and died as he lived - a secular monarch.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
Ivan III of Russia (22.01.1440 - 27.10.1505 +)
Parents: Basil II (1415-1462 +), Maria of Kiev;
(cm. genealogical table)
1.Mariya (1442-1467 +), daughter of Boris Aleksandrovich, Prince of Tver =>
Ivan Young (1458-1490 +), conducted. Prince of Tver, and his wife - Elena Stefanovna (Voloshanka) (1505 +), daughter of Stephen III, Ruler of Moldavia =>
Dmitry's grandson (10/10/1483 - 14/02/1509 +) led. prince of Vladimir;
Initially, after the death of Ivan the Young, Ivan III was located in the favor of her daughter and grandson Dmitry and even crowned him king (1498g). But a year later, having made peace with his wife Sophia and son Basil, subjected Elena and Dmitry disgrace, locked them in jail, where they died
. 2.Sofya (Zoya) Palaeologus (1448-7.04.1503 +), daughter of Thomas Palaeologus, niece of the last Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX =>
. Elena (1474 -?);
. Theodosia (1475 -?);
. Helen (1476-1513 +), the wife of Lithuanian Prince Alexander Kazimirovich;
. Vasily III (1479-1533 +);
. Yuri (1480-1536 +), book
He was arrested and died in prison as the largest holder of rights to the throne during the regency of Elena Glinsky with juvenile Ivan IV.
Wife - Efrosinia;
Dmitry Gilca (1481-1521 +), book. Uglich;
Theodosia (1485-1505 +), since 1500 the wife of Prince VD Kholmsk;
Simeon (1487-1518 +), book. Kaluga;
Andrew (1490-1537 +), book. Staritskiy;
With his older brother, Grand Prince Vasily III, lived in harmony. A few days after the death of Basil (1533), on the orders of the ruler of Helena, was seized by the eldest of the brothers of the deceased, Jury, on charges of sedition, and imprisoned. Andrew was not suspected of soumyshlennichestve with Yuri and lived quietly in Moscow until Sorochintsy by Grand Prince Vasily. Prepared to leave to his inheritance, Andrew became priprashivat cities to his patrimony, in the cities he was refused, and gave things - coats, cups, horses. Andrew left dissatisfied. There were people who reported this gave Helen, and Andrew said that he wanted to grab. Andrew's Arrival in Moscow for a personal explanation to the ruler did not stop the mutual misunderstandings. In Moscow, reported that Andrew is going to run. Helen sent to call the Prince Staritskogo in Moscow for advice on the war in Kazan (in 1537). Three times invited him to Moscow, but he did not go, pleading illness. Then it was filled in Staritsa Embassy of the spiritual persons, and at the same time, it was moved a strong army to cut off the path to the Lithuanian border. Hearing of this, Andrew went to the Novgorod region, where he managed to infuriate many landowners. Caught grand army, under the leadership of Helen's favorite, Duke Sheep Telepneva Obolensky, Andrey did not dare to join the fight and agreed to come to Moscow, hoping the promise Obolensky, that there will not do him no harm. Helen, however, did Obolensky reprimand, why did it without orders had taken an oath to the prince. Andrew was put in prison, where he died a few months ( "scream under the iron hat"). His wife and son Vladimir Efrosinia also been imprisoned.
Vladimir (1533-1569h), Prince. Staritskiy;
Evdokia (1492-1513 +), with 1503 the wife of Peter, the prince Kaydakkula;
Conducted. Prince of Moscow (1462-1505);
During the reign of Ivan III had the territorial nucleus of a single Rossiyskogo States, began folding the central state apparatus.
Adding Yaroslavl (1463), Novgorod (1478), Tver (1485), Vyatka, Perm, etc.. When it was overthrown by the Mongol-Tatar yoke ( 'standing on the Ugra' 1480g.), . compiled Sudebnik 1497, . unfolded a large building in Moscow, . increased international prestige Rossiyskogo States, . occurred clearance of title - the Grand Duke 'All Russia',
Ivan III continued the policy of his predecessors, seeking to unite under the leadership of Russia in Moscow and destroying principalities and independence veche areas, as well as leading the fight against Lithuania because of the acceding States of the Russian lands. The actions of John did not differ singular determination: a cautious and prudent, not possessed of personal courage, he preferred to reach the intended target with slow steps, taking advantage of favorable the circumstances,.
Power of Moscow has already reached a significant development, while its competitors had weakened markedly, this gave a wide scope of the cautious policy of John. Private Russian principalities were too weak, lacked the means to fight and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, . a combination of these forces have prevented the steady-Russian population in the mass consciousness of its unity and Russian hostility to Catholicism was consolidated in Lithuania,
Novgorodians, fearing for their independence, it was decided to seek the protection of Lithuania, although in the Novgorod strong party was opposed to this decision. John at first was limited to persuasion. But the Lithuanian party, led by the family Boretsky, finally prevailed. First, he was invited to Novgorod (1470) one of the servicemen of the Lithuanian princes Olelkovich Mikhail (Aleksandrovich), . then, . when Michael, . learning about the death of his brother Seeds, . former governor of Kiev, . went to Kiev, ,
. Novgorod placed under his authority, with the condition of conservation Novgorod customs and privileges. Then he opened the campaign, having collected a large army, which had been supporting three detachments of his brothers, Tver and Pskov. Kazimir not filed through Novgorod, and their troops, July 14, 1471, suffered a decisive defeat in the Battle of the River. Shelon of magistrates John, Prince Danilo Dmitrievich Kholmsk; later another army of Novgorod was defeated on the Dvina Prince Vasili Shuisky. Novgorod requested the world and got it, on condition of payment of 15,500 rubles, the assignment of Zavolochya and obligations not to enter into an alliance with Lithuania.
Once, however, a gradual repression of Novgorod Carta. In 1475, Mr.. John visited Novgorod and judged by a court here in the old days, but then began to accept complaints of Novgorod and Moscow, where he worked on them and the court, calling the defendants for the Moscow police officers, contrary to the privileges of Novgorod. Novgorodians tolerated these violations of their rights, not giving an excuse to their complete destruction. In 1477, Mr.. a pretext was, however, in John: the ambassadors of Novgorod, Podvoisky Nazar and veche clerk Zahar, posing as John called it not "lord", as usual, and the "sovereign". In vain were the answers of the Novgorod Veche, that it did not give his envoys such order; John accused of Novgorod in denial and causing him to infamy and in October made a trip to Novgorod.
Encountering no resistance, and refusing all requests for peace and pardon, he came to Novgorod, and besieged it. Only here Novgorod then you find the conditions under which the Grand Duke agreed to pardon her paternal: they were in complete destruction veche Management. Surrounded on all sides, . Novgorod had to agree to these terms, . as well as to return to the Grand Duke of Novotorzhskaya townships, . Vladychnoye half and half of the monastic, . having only a bargain for small concessions in the interests of the poor monasteries,
. January 15, 1478, Mr.. followed by the oath of Novgorod John on new conditions, after which he drove into the city and capturing leaders of the hostile party, sent them to Moscow prison.
Novgorod did not immediately reconciled to his fate: in the following year there occurred the uprising, supported by the suggestions of John Casimir and brothers - Andrew and Boris Bolshoi. John Novgorod forced to surrender, executed many of the perpetrators of the uprising, Bishop Theophilus imprisoned, expelled from the town in Moscow region more than 1000 families of merchants and knights, were moved to their place of new residents from Moscow. New plots and unrest in Novgorod led only to new repressive measures. Particularly widely used John to Novgorod system evictions: one in 1488, Mr.. was withdrawn to Moscow more than 7000 people zhitih. Through such measures, it was finally crushed the freedom-loving people of Novgorod.
Further centralization of Russia
Following the fall of Novgorod's independence fell and Vyatka, in 1489, Mr.. John compelled commanders to complete submission. Of the cities only Pskov veche still remain the old device, . reaching this complete obedience to the will of John, . changing, . however, . gradually and Pskov orders: so, . governor, . elected Chamber, . replaced by a designated, . only the Grand Duke had been canceled orders Chamber of smerds, . and the people of Pskov were forced to accept this,
One after another fell before John and principalities. In 1463, Mr.. Yaroslavl was annexed by the assignment of its rights there the princes, in 1474, Mr.. Rostov princes sold to John remains for them half of the city.
Then it came to Tver. Prince Mikhail Borisovich, fearing increasing, strength of Moscow, married a granddaughter of the Lithuanian prince Kazimierz and concluded with him in 1484, Mr.. union treaty. John began the war with Tver and led it successfully, but at the request of Michael gave him peace, on condition of renunciation of self relations with Lithuania and the Tatars. Retaining independence, . Tver, . as previously Novgorod, . undergone a number of harassment, particularly in border dispute, . tverichi could not obtain justice for Muscovites, . seized their lands, . resulting in an increasing number of boyars and knights passed from Tver to Moscow at the service of Grand Duke,
. Exasperated, Michael started relations with Lithuania, but they were open, and John, not listening to requests and apologies, in September 1485, Mr.. stepped up to Tver, the majority of boyars passed on to his side, Michael fled to Casimiro, and Tver was annexed.
In the same year, John received Vereya bequest Prince Michael Andreevich, whose son, Vasily, even earlier, fearing disgrace, John, fled to Lithuania. Inside the Moscow principality also destroyed inheritances, and falling value of the unit to the power of the princes of John.
In 1472, Mr.. John's brother died, Prince Yury of Dmitrov, or George, John took to his entire inheritance and did not give the other brother, by profaning the old order, which escheated inheritance was supposed to go to the section between the brothers. The brothers had quarreled with John, but made it up when he gave them some parish. New collision occurred in 1479, Mr.. Conquered Novgorod with the help of the brothers, John did not let them participate in the Novgorod parish. Dissatisfied with this already, the Grand Duke brothers were even more outraged when he ordered one of his deputies seize departed from him to Prince Boris Boyar (kn. Ivan Obolensky-liber). Princes Volotskii and Uglich, Boris and Andrew Large Vasilievich, snesshis among themselves, entered into relations with Novgorod and Lithuania, and rallied the troops entered the Novgorod and Pskov parish. But John managed to crush the rebellion Novgorod, . Casimir did not help his brothers gave the Grand Duke's one they did not dare to attack Moscow and stayed until the turn of the Lithuanian 1480, . when the invasion of the Crimean Khan Akhmad gave them the case of a profit to make up with his brother,
. John agreed to conclude peace with them and gave them a new parish with Andrew Large was Mojaisk formerly owned by Yuri.
In 1481, Mr.. Andrew died youngest, younger brother of John, owed him 30,000 rubles in life, he left a bequest to him his inheritance, in which the other brothers did not receive the participation
. Ten years later, John arrested in Moscow, Andrei Bolshoi, . a few months before not sent their armies of the Tatars at his command, . and put him in close conclusion, . in which he died, . in 1494, the whole lot of it was taken by the Grand Duke over,
The lot Boris, after his death, inherited his two sons, one of whom died in 1503, leaving his part John. Thus the number of principalities created by the father of John, was strongly reduced by the end of the reign of John. However, the firm installed a new beginning in relations to the great feudal princes: Will John formulate a rule which he himself followed, and by which unclaimed inheritances were to go to the Grand Duke. The rule destroys the possibility of concentration of principalities in someone else's hands by the Grand Duke, and the root undermined the feudal princes.
The expansion of Moscow's possessions at the expense of Lithuania contributed turmoil that took place in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Already in the first decades of the reign of John, many service princes of Lithuania fell to him, keeping their estates, the most prominent of these were princes of Ivan Mikhailovich VOROTINSKY and Ivan Belsky. The death of Kazimierz, when elected King of Poland Jan-Albrecht, a Lithuanian table took Alexander, John began an open war with the latter
. Made the Lithuanian Grand Duke attempt to stop the fight by a related alliance with the Muscovite dynasty did not lead to expected outcome: John did not previously consented to the marriage of his daughter Helen Alexander, . How to conclude peace, . which Alexander found him the title of Emperor of All Russia and Moscow, all acquired during the war land,
. Later, most akin to John the alliance became more than just a pretext for interference in the internal affairs of Lithuania and the requirement to cease the harassment of Orthodox
. John himself through the mouth of the ambassadors sent to the Crimea, explained its policy towards Lithuania: "Grand Duke of Lithuania from our lasting peace there; Lithuanian Grand Duke wants the cities and lands, . what he has taken, . a great prince wants his his paternal, . throughout the Russian land ",
. These mutual claims already in 1499, Mr.. provoked a new war between Alexander and John, good for last, July 14, 1500, Mr.. Russian troops have won a great victory over the Lithuanians at the river. Vedroshi, and was taken prisoner by Lithuanian Hetman, Prince Constantine Ostrog.
Prisoner in 1503, Mr.. world after Moscow secured its new acquisitions, including Chernigov, Starodub, Novgorod-Seversky, Putivl, Rylsk and 14 other cities.
End Ordynski yoke
When John Muscovy, strengthened and united, finally threw off the Tatar yoke. Ahmad Khan of the Golden Horde in 1472 are r. made, under the inspiration of the Polish king Casimir, march on Moscow, but took only Aleksin and could not move the Oka, which gathered a strong army of John.
In 1476, Mr.. John refused to pay tribute Ahmat, and in 1480, Mr.. the latter again attacked Russia, but p. Ugra was stopped by the army of Grand Duke. Sam John, and now still hesitated, and only the insistence of the clergy, especially the Bishop of Rostov Vassian, prompted him to personally go to the army and break off negotiations with Akhmat. All autumn the Russian and Tatar army stood against one another on different sides of p. Ugra, when winter has already, . and severe frosts began to bother poorly dressed Tatars Akhmat, . he, . without waiting for assistance from the Casimir, . departed on November 11, next year he was killed by Prince Nogai Iwaki, . and the power of the Golden Horde over Russia collapsed completely,
Immediately after John took the offensive against another Tartar kingdom - Kazan Khanate. Troubles began in Kazan on the death of Ibrahim Khan among his sons, Ali Khan and Mohammed Amin, gave John Kazan case subordinate to its influence. In 1487, Mr.. exiled brother Mohammed Amin came to John, asking for help, and following the army of the Grand Duke's siege of Kazan and forced Ali Khan to surrender, in its place was put Mohammed Amin, who in fact a vassal relationship to John.
In 1496, Mr.. Mohammed Amin was overthrown by Kazan Tatars, . accept the Nogai Prince Mamuka; not uzhivshis with, . Kazan once again asked the king to John asking him to just not send them Mohammed Amin, . John also sent to them shortly before you came to him in the service of the Crimean prince Abdyl-Letif,
. The latter, however, already in 1502, Mr.. John was deposed and imprisoned in the White-lake for disobedience, and Kazan was again Mohammed Amin, who in 1505, Mr.. rebelled against Moscow and started a war with an attack on the Nizhny Novgorod. Death did not allow John to restore the lost power over Kazan.
The Crimea and Turkey John to maintain peaceful relations. Crimean Khan Mengli Giray, he threatened the Golden Horde, was a staunch ally of John as against it and against Lithuania, with Turkey not only made profitable for Russian trade on Kafinskom market, but since 1492, Mr.. were tied and diplomatic relations through Mengli Giray
. The new nature of state power
. The nature of the sovereign authority of Moscow under Ivan undergone significant changes, dependent not only on its actual gain, with the fall of principalities, but also from the appearance of the soil prepared in this growing new concepts
. With the fall of Constantinople, the Russian scribes were transferred to a Moscow prince then the representation of the king - head of Orthodox Christianity, which was previously associated with the name of the Byzantine emperor. Such transference was promoted by the family atmosphere of John. The first marriage he was married to Mary Borisovna Tver, from which he had a son John, whose surname was young, a son of John called the Grand Duke, seeking to strengthen him for the throne.
Mary B. died in 1467, and in 1469, Mr.. Pope John Paul II offered his hand Zoe, or, as it became known in Russia, Sophia Fominishny Palaeologus, niece of the last Byzantine emperor. Ambassador of the Grand Duke - Ivan Fryazin, as it is called Russian chronicles, or Jean Battista Della Volpe, as his name is really, finally gave the case, and November 12, 1472, Mr.. Sophia moved to Moscow and married to John
. Along with this marriage have changed a lot and customs of the Moscow court: the Byzantine princess told her husband a higher idea of his power, . outwardly expressed in increasing splendor, . in adopting the emblem of the Byzantine, . in the introduction of complex court ceremonies, . and clear away the Grand Duke of boyars,
The latter were so hostile to Sophia, and after her birth in 1479, Mr.. Basil and his son's death in 1490, Mr.. John Young, . who had a son, Dimitri, . the court of John clearly formed two parties, . one of which, . consisting of the most noble boyars, . including Patrikeyev and Ryapolovskih, . upheld the right to the throne of Demetrius, . the other - for the most obscure knights and clerks - stood for Basil,
. This family feud, . on the basis of which faced hostile political parties, . more intertwined with the question of church policy - on action against Judaizers, mother of Dimitri, . Elena, . inclined to heresy and John refrained from drastic measures against it, . and Sophia, . opposite, . stood for the persecution of heretics,
First, the victory was, it seemed, on the side of Demetrius and the boyars. In December 1497, Mr.. opened there was a conspiracy adherents of Basil on the life of Demetrius, son of John arrested, executed the plotters and was wary of his wife, caught in relations with the fortune-teller. February 4, 1498, Mr.. Demetrius was crowned king. But in the next year suffered the disgrace of his supporters: Semen Ryapolovsky was executed, . Ivan Patrikeev son a monk and soon John, . without taking even a grandson of the great reign, . declared the son of Grand Prince of Novgorod and Pskov, and finally, . April 11, 1502, Mr.,
. John clearly laid disgrace to Helen and Dimitri, placing them in custody, and on 14 April and blessed reign of Basil the Great.
When John clerk Gusev has produced the first Code of Law. John tried to raise the Russian industry and the arts, and summoned from abroad masters, of which the best known was Aristotle Fioraventi, builder of the Moscow Cathedral of the Assumption.