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Maxim Litvinov

( Soviet diplomat)

Comments for Maxim Litvinov
Biography Maxim Litvinov
Maxim Litvinov (real name and the name - Wallach Max) (1876-1951) - Soviet diplomat, had the rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. On the diplomatic service from 1917. In 1918, Mr.. was appointed diplomatic representative of Soviet Russia in England, but the British government did not recognize his authority. In 1918 - 1921 he. - Member of the Board of the People's Commissariat of the RSFSR: in 1920. - Envoy of the RSFSR in Estonia. In 1921 - 1930 he. - Deputy People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the RSFSR (with 1923. - USSR). In 1930 - 1939 he. - People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR. In addition, in 1934-1938 he. represented the USSR in the League of Nations. In 1941 - 1943 he. - Soviet Ambassador to the United States, while in 1942-1943 he. - Envoy of the USSR, Cuba. Since 1946, Mr.. Retired.

Collegiate Dictionary

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Litvinov M. M. (1876-1951) - Party and state leaders, prominent Soviet diplomat. Member RSDLP from 1898, a Bolshevik, was an agent of "Iskra", participated in the First Russian Revolution 1905-1907. Since June 1914. - Representative RSDLP in the International Socialist Bureau, member of the London section of the Bolshevik RSDLP. After the October Socialist Revolution ua diplomatic work. Since 1921. - Deputy People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs. From 1930 to 1939. - People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs. In 1941-1943, Messrs. Deputy Commissar for Foreign Affairs and ambassador to the U.S. after returning from the United States until 1946 - Deputy Commissar for Foreign Affairs. At the XVII Congress of the Party was elected a member of the CC, CPSU (b), was elected a member of the USSR Central Executive Committee and deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.

See. F.F. Raskolnikov at her post. M. 1964

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. Maxim Litvinov (real name - Meyer-Henoch Movshevich Wallach) (5.7.1876 Bialystok, Grodno province - 31.12.1951, Moscow), statesman
. The son of an employee. Education was a real school (1893). Since 1893 served as a volunteer army, after demobilization - Accountant. In 1898 joined the RSDLP, Bolshevik. Conducted Party work in the Ukraine, Riga and St. Petersburg. During the revolution of 1905-06 was involved in transporting weapons to Russia. In 1907 he left for exile. In 1907, Secretary of the delegation RSDLP at the International Socialist Congress (Stuttgart). In 1908, France arrested on charges of aggravated assault committed in 1907 in Tiflis, Kamo, and deported to Britain. Since 1908 the Secretary of the London Group of the Bolsheviks; worked clerk in the publishing firm of William and Norgeyt ". He was married to the daughter of the British journalist, his wife - Feyvi (Ivey Valterovna) Lowe - until the end of life remained British citizenship. In 1914-15, the representative RSDLP in the International Socialist Bureau. After the Bolsheviks came to power in January. 1918 was appointed ambassador of the RSFSR in the UK, but the government did not recognize his authority. Launched a campaign to promote the Soviet policy of appealing to the English working class. In Sept., 1918 arrested in response to the arrest of the Cheka British diplomat B. Lockhart, on, which in October. Traded. Upon his return (Nov.. 1918) introduced a panel of the Foreign Affairs of the RSFSR. In 1918-19 headed the Soviet. mission in Copenhagen, was negotiating to break the political blockade of the RSFSR. His actions are used by the Communist Party to spread its ideas and policies in Europe. Since 1921 Ambassador to Estonia. Since May 1921 Deputy.. People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the RSFSR. In 1922 Deputy. Head of the Soviet delegation at Genoa, and then head of the delegation at the Hague Conference .. Since 1923, Deputy. People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR. His early. GV. Chicherin complained that the Litvinov boor and an ignoramus, and it can not fend for diplomatic work. 21/7/1930 Chicherina replaced as head of the Soviet Foreign Minister. Since 1934 member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). In 1934-38 represented the USSR in the League of Nations. Talented diplomat, Litvinov has made great efforts to. disguise events occurring in the USSR (in t.ch. mass terror), demagogic using two main provisions - disarmament and the fight against fascism. In 1937-50 member of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. When a rapprochement with Germany, the Soviet Union, Litvinov was replaced by VM 3.5.1939. Molotov. One of the reasons was antigermanskaya position Litvinov, as well as the fact that A. Hitler did not consider him as a Jew, an acceptable partner in negotiations. After that, the NKVD had arrested most of his deputies and chiefs of the Commissariat, with a group of his closest associates have been arrested on May 4. "Litvinov failed to conduct the party line in the commissariat in the matter of selection and education of personnel, the Soviet Foreign Ministry was not quite Bolshevik, tk. Comrade Litvinov held for a number of alien and hostile to the Party and Soviet State people, "- said at the meeting Molotov. At the XVIII Conference of the CPSU (b) in Feb.. 1941 derived from the CC as "not fulfilled the duties of a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). In 1941-46 Deputy. Commissar (Minister) for Foreign Affairs of the USSR, while in 1941-43, Ambassador to the United States in 1942-43 Envoy in Cuba. Since 1946, retired.

To use material from the book.: Zaleski KA. Stalin's empire. Biographical Encyclopedic Dictionary. Moscow, Veche, 2000

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Litvinov (cf.. Pham. and the name Ballah Max) Maxim (1876 Bialystok, Grodno Province .- 1951, Moscow) - cos. desks. and State. figure. Genus. family clerk. Educated in the amount of real-uch я+п¦. Worked as a civilian employee in the army, and met with the Social Democratic lit-swarm. Since 1898 in workers' circles conduct propaganda of Marxism. Because of the surveillance the police moved to Kiev and in 1900 there was adopted RSDLP. In 1901, Litvinov was arrested. In 1902 made a successful escape from prison Lukyanovskaya, emigrated to Switzerland. Was among the leaders, who knew the transportation and distribution of gas. Iskra. After the II Party Congress became a Bolshevik. In 1903, Litvinov illegally returned to Russia: he was a member of the Riga RSDLP Committee, participated in the III Congress of the Party. In October. 1905 Litvinov, together with L. B. Krasin St. Petersburg published the first legal Bolshevik gas. "New Life". In 1906 he fled abroad, carried out the orders of the Central Committee, including the purchase of weapons for "expropriated" money. Soon he returned to the Central Committee assignments in the Volga and the Urals, but was tracked down by police and fled. Since 1907, Litvinov was the secretary of the London Group RSDLP, participated in the International Congress in Stuttgart, denounced the First World War and was arrested almost all European countries. After the October roar. 1917 he was appointed ambassador to England, but is not recognized by the British Government. Soon arrested as a hostage in response to the arrest in Moscow, the British head of a diplomatic mission, P. Lockhart. In 1918, Litvinov was exchanged for Lockhart, returned to Moscow and entered the college NCID. In 1921 he became deputy commissar, a member of Rabkrin. In 1920, Litvinov was appointed ambassador and trade representative in Estonia. In 1922, Litvinov was deputy head of delegation in Genoa, led a delegation to The Hague. In 1923, Litvinov successfully negotiated with Britain to lift the blockade Owls. Russia has signed trade agreements with Norway, Germany. In 1930, Litvinov was the Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR and the Soviet Union was the representative of the League of Nations, proved himself a distinguished diplomat. In 1934-1941 Litvinov was a member of the CC, CPSU (b). Capable of initiative, Litvinov nevertheless served the will of Stalin. Stalin had proceeded from the fact that all the imperialist powers hostile to the USSR, and therefore considered it necessary to pursue a policy of balance of forces. Litvinov was a sincere opponent of the alliance with Nazi Germany. Deciding to go into an alliance with Hitler, Stalin, 3 May 1939 replacing the post Litvinov, Commissar for Foreign Affairs, VM. Molotov. Posted resign Litvinov was not destroyed but kept in reserve and was again called upon after the start of the Great Patriotic War. In 1941, Litvinov was appointed ambassador to the United States, and since 1942 - and in Cuba, at the same time as the Deputy Commissar for Foreign Affairs. Died in the Kremlin hospital after a third heart attack.

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