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( Roman Emperor)

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Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus - Roman emperor of the Antonine dynasty, who ruled in 180-192 years. Son of Marcus Aurelius. Genus. August 31. 161 g. + 31 December. 192 g.
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Emperor Marcus Aurelius, who was one of the most learned men of his time with the children tried to teach Commodus their moral rules and rules of the great and eminent men. He taught and literature, and rhetoric, and philosophy, but of no use, these studies did not bring him because of bad instincts, which appeared early in Commodus. Almost from childhood he was distinguished shameful conduct was dishonest, cruel, depraved. Skilful of all, he was in those classes that do not conform to the Status of the emperor: sculpted bowls, danced, sang, whistled, finally, showed an excellent ability to fool and gladiator. Signs cruelty found it in the twelfth year of life. Once, when he was washed in warm water too, he had to throw the bathhouse attendant in the oven. Then his uncle, who had been ordered to do so, burned in the furnace of lamb's skin, so fetid odor of burning to prove that the penalty enforced.

. At 175 g, during the uprising Avidya Cassius, Commodus was accompanied by his father on his trip to Egypt and Syria
. Then, in 176, he was proclaimed emperor, and the following year, in violation of the law on the age, received the first consulate. Even then, due to the softness of his father, he arranged in the Palace of the Palatine and the drinking sprees, collected from a women who are beautiful in appearance, like what some slave-prostitutes, and mocking modesty, arranged in a brothel. He started well in his harness horses for the chariot and, alongside the driver, the rules of feasting with chariots and gladiators. Trying to soften his character, Marcus Aurelius took his son to war with the Germans. But soon the Emperor infected with plague and died, leaving his successor Commodus. Then Commodus immediately stop the war that his father had almost finished; demands some enemies he had, the friendship of other bought with money and ran after this in Rome (Lampridy: 'Commodus Antoninus'; 1-3).

. The people in the capital greeted him with joy and jubilation, because in addition to his youth, he had an attractive appearance
. His gaze was tender and fiery hair naturally blond and curly, so when he was illuminated by the sun, many seemed almost that deity.

. For some time, Dresser give all sorts of honors his father's friends, and in all cases used their advice
. But then he put at the head of Praetorian Perennisa, a native Italians, who, abusing the older boy, totally corrupted him and ward off from decent sovereign cares (Herodian: 1, 7-8). Willingly succumbed to its influence. Kom-fashion became mad in the palace at feasts and the baths, along with three hundred concubines;, . he scored from matrons and harlots on the basis of beauty, . and three hundred adults libertines, . which he had collected from the common people and the nobility of, . force and for the money, . moreover it also solved the beauty,
. He fought in the arena among their sleeping bags as a gladiator, using blunt rapiers, and sometimes sharpened swords. Sometimes he would order the profane in their eyes, even his concubines. He had reached such a shame that he was given to young people, and all without exception, part of the body, even the lips had been desecrated by intercourse with persons of either sex. He had his favorites, whose names were names shameful parts of male and female body; them he was particularly glad handing their kisses. He had also host one man, who had the extraordinary size of male organ, the man he called his ass and was very proud of them. Dresser made him rich and put at the head of the priests of Agriculture Hercules. In the bath he washed in the seven and eight times a day and in the bath also took food. Even his jokes were a match for unbridled nature. Often, expensive food, he mixed with human feces and thus laugh at guests. Prefect of Pretoria, Julian, he ordered to dance naked in front of his face smeared concubines and beat the cymbals (Lampridy: 'Commodus Antoninus', 5, 10, II). Meanwhile, allowing the Dresser deal of pleasure and drinking, Perennis gradually acquired such strength that all state administration was in his hands. The influence of his, he is fully used for selfish purposes and the first thing began to slander the most deserving of friends and associates of Marcus Aurelius. Its success has encouraged many intrigues and conspiracy against the emperor, the open just at this time (Herodian: 1, 8). At the head of the conspirators was Princeps sister Lucilla, and to kill Commodus was close to it man, Claudius Pompeyan. But entering a Dresser with a drawn sword, and having the opportunity to act, he shouted: 'This sends you a dagger Senate'. That he only gave the existence of intent, but failed to meet the case, as it was at that moment disarmed (Lampridy: 'Commodus Antoninus', 4). This attempt was the first and main cause of hatred to the young man to the Senate, said his wounded soul, and he began to count all the senators enemies, constantly mindful of the speech attacking him. Dresser ruthlessly executed anyone who was in the conspiracy, as well as many under suspicion (Herodian: 1, 8).

Lucilla he first sent to Capri, and then ordered to kill. However, Perennis long outlived his enemies. Soon he was accused of plotting the assassination on the life of the emperor and executed along with his son. With the demise of both uncovered numerous abuses being committed by them will supposedly Emperor. Dresser canceled many orders of his former favorite, and even announced his intention to personally engage public affairs. But in this mood, he spent no more than a month, and then everything went on as before. Place Pe-rennisa took freedman Cleander (Lampridy: 'Commodus Antoninus', 4, 6). He achieved this honor and power, that he had been entrusted with personal protection, sovereign superintendence bedchamber and command of the troops (Herodian: 1, 12). Arbitrariness of that of a powerful were no boundaries. In his discretion, even freedmen elected to the Senate and considered to be patricians. Then the first time in one year was twenty-five consuls, and all the provinces have been sold. Cleander sold for money all the return from exile given an honorary posts, cancels the decision of the court. Anyone who tried to open their eyes to the abuse of Commodus Cleander immediately subjected to disgrace. Commodus ordered the execution of even the husband of his sister Birr, and together with him were put to death many others, defended his. Among the victims was also prefect of the praetorian Ebunian. Instead, he became prefect Cleander (Lampridy: 'Kom-fashion Antonin'; 6). But this samovlasttsa eventually suffered retribution. In 189 g. Cleander bought in huge quantities of bread and kept it under lock and key, which led to famine in the capital. Commodus meantime so away from the state of affairs that did not know about. When the crowd moved to his palace, to bring a complaint Cleander, her troops were put. As a result, the streets erupted a real battle between an angry mob and riders. Only then Commodus dared to bring about what is happening, and he ordered the immediate execution Cleander. When the head of the hated freedmen showed the Romans, the excitement subsided spontaneously (Herodian: 1, 12-13). At the same time were killed and the other courtiers freedmen, surrogates Cleander. By the way, and it turned out that Cleander intercourse with concubines Commodus and had children by them, which after his death were killed with their mothers (Lampridy: 'Commodus Antoninus'; 7). Having experienced such great danger, Commodus was treated with distrust, ruthlessly killing and is easy to believe all the slander. In the behavior of BDB ~ eat, he soon threw off all shame and revealed to the Romans all the immense abyss of his license;. First of all, he had to call himself not Commodus, but Hercules took off and the Roman imperial robe, pulling the lion's skin and wore a cudgel in the hands of. This club he had killed several people, one in a fit of anger, others - just a joke (Lampridy: 'Commodus Antoninus', 9). Sometimes he wore a purple zlatotkanuyu clothes, so that was funny, imitating both their appearance and the profligacy of women, and the strength of heroes. Changed it and the names of months of the year, lifting the ancient and calling all the months of their own names (Herodian: 1, 13 - 14). August has become referred to as Commodus, September - porridge, October - invincible, November - overcoming, December - Amazon. Amazon, he was named in honor of the beloved concubine of Emperor Marci, whose portrait in the form of the Amazons, he admired (Lampridy: 'Commodus Antoninus'; II). He put his statue and around the city and even against the Senate building a statue with a taut bow - he wanted his image threatened horror. This statue of the Senate after his death, removed and erected an image of freedom. Do not restrain himself, he sat down finally to what became a drawn to participate in public spectacles, as a simple gladiator. He even wished to move from the palace to the barracks of the gladiators, and called himself not Hercules, but the name of one famous, shortly before the deceased gladiator. He ordered the decapitation of the greatest statues, revered by the Romans as an image of the sun, and put in its place his own head, signed on the basis instead of the usual imperial epithet 'won a thousand gladiators' (Herodian: 1, 15). In fact, he defeated or killed many retiarius that the number of gladiatorial palm branches came with him to the thousands (Lampridy: 'Kom-fashion Antonin'; 12). However, it was not surprising, since all were fed to him, thinking of him as a monarch, not as a Gladiator (Herodian: 1, 15). Often he killed svoh opponents under the guise of a defensive battle, whereas I do not: the first was the very weapon, equipped with a lead edge. After he had already killed many fading way, . some gladiator named Stseva, . relying on their courage, . physical strength and training school, . deterred him from such exercises: he threw down his sword, . recognizing it as useless and saying, . that is enough for two of the weapons,
. who was armed himself Kom-fashion. And he was afraid he might have snatched a dagger in combat - that happens - and let Stsevu. Since then, he began to fear and other fighters and turned their fury against the wild beasts (Victor: "O Caesar '; 18). He grandiose spectacle, pledging his own hand to kill all the animals. Modva this spread, and from all over Italy and from the neighboring provinces of people gathered to look at something they had not seen and what they have not heard. Yearned for accuracy of his hands and that he threw the javelin and shot an arrow, not knowing misses. If it had been taught him extremely experienced in archery Parthians and the best javelin thrower Mauritanians - all of them he excelled agility. When the days sights, . amphitheater was filled, for Commodus was arranged in a ring fence, . that it is not in danger, . fought with the beasts face to face, throwing a spear from the top, . from a safe place, . He showed more accuracy, . than courage,
. He struck the deer and gazelles and other horned animals, . Any other, . except bulls, . running with them and pursuing them, . ahead of their run and killing their deft strokes; same lions and leopards and other noble beasts he, . obegaya around, . killed with a spear top,
. And no one saw any of the second dart, or other wounds, but deadly, as soon as the animal jumps out, he strikes the forehead or in his heart and did his dart did not get to another part of the body. Everywhere for it brought the animals, and killing, he showed the Romans all the animals, previously unknown from India and Ethiopia, from the southern and northern land. All were amazed accuracy of his hands. Somehow, taking the boom, nozzles which have the form crescent, he began producing them in the Mauritanian ostriches rushing through the speed of the legs and bend the wings with extraordinary speed. He beheaded them, cutting off the top of the neck, even devoid of goals because of the speed of arrows, they continued to run around with them if nothing happened. One day a leopard in a very fast race overtook the issuing rights and prepared to bite him, Commodus, beating him with his spear, killing the animal, but a man rescued. At other times of the dungeons was simultaneously released a hundred lions, and he killed them all the same number of darts - their dead bodies lay for a long time, so that everything is quiet counted them and did not see any extra dart (Herodian: 1, 15). In beating the animals he showed extraordinary strength, piercing a spear through the elephant, horn piercing spear Numidian wild goats and killing with the first strike many thousands of huge beasts.

. But if all this he was strong enough, then the rest turned out weak and feeble
. He had a large tumor in the groin, and the Roman people noticed this shortcoming through his silk garments. Laziness and carelessness of his reach that in many appeals, he wrote the same thing, but almost all of his letters were limited to a single phrase: 'Be Healthy'. All the other affairs of state were made with the other great abuse (Lampridy: 'Commodus Antoninus', 13).

He was killed Commodus in 192 g. as a result of the conspiracy, who were against him next to him people. It is said that after a quarrel with his mistress Marcius, he compiled a list of those who wanted to execute the same night. Also Marci and several other famous people in it were made years, praetorian prefect, and Eklekt, imperial sleeping. But it so happened that Filokommod, a little boy, whom the emperor loved to tinker and sleep, play, pulled out this list of cabinet Commodus. Thus, he fell into the hands of Marci, and she showed it to oblivion and Eklektu. While the story and it seems not very plausible, it is quite likely, in any case no doubt that these three princes kill conceived and carried out his plan. When Commodus after the bath came to Marci, she gave him to drink poisoned wine. First, the poison soporific, but then at Commodus began vomiting (Herodian: 1, 17). The conspirators were afraid that this will force the poison will be insufficient and the emperor would guess about an attempt. Then they sent him to his freedman Narcissus, master rubbing. As if dealing with his art, he leaned his elbow on the throat of Commodus, and so strangled him (Victor: "O Caesar '; 17). And the Senate and the people by the news of the death of Commodus with the greatest joy. It was even adopted a decision to throw his body into the Tiber. But the new emperor Pertinax not allow such blasphemy, and the body of Commodus was buried at the Tomb of Hadrian (Lampridy: 'Commodus Antoninus', 17).

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