Helmuth Karl von Moltke (the Elder)( Graf (1870), the Germanic general field marshal (1871) and military theorist)
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Biography Helmuth Karl von Moltke (the Elder)
Helmuth Karl von Moltke (the Elder) (1800-1891) - Helmuth Karl von Moltke (the Elder), Earl (1870), the Germanic general field marshal (1871) and military theorist. In 1858-1888 he. - Chief of General Staff, Commander in Chief actually in the wars with Denmark, Austria and France. Gave the idea of the inevitability of war, surprise attack and the lightning defeat of the enemy encirclement. One of the ideologists germanskogo militarism.
Helmut (Helmut) von Moltke came from an old German noble family. Born in Mecklenburg, but studied at a military school in Copenhagen, and first entered the Danish military service, which at the time was his father. In 1822, Mr.. entered the service of Prussia. In 1835, Mr.. von Moltke as a captain traveled to the East and, . submitted by the Turkish sultan in Constantinople, Mahmud II, . at his request, remained in the Turkish army as an instructor, . taking part in its reorganization, . in fortification works, . as well as in campaigns against the Kurds, . Egypt and Syria,
. In 1855, Mr.. was appointed the first adjutant to the Crown Prince Frederick William, the future Emperor Frederick III, who was accompanied on trips to St. Petersburg, Moscow, Paris and London.
Since 1858, Mr.. von Moltke - Chief of the Prussian General Staff. For the first time its outstanding strategic ability he showed in 1864. in the war with Denmark, which lasted only four months and completed the annexation of Schleswig to Prussia with the seaport of Kiel and the territory of Lauenburg. Two years later, Prussia went to war against his recent ally of the Danish war - Austria. The Prussian General Staff under von Moltke and the War Ministry, headed by General von Rosno developed a plan of military action. June 17, 1866, Mr.. War was declared. July 3 in Bohemia, in the Battle of Sadovaya, the Austrian army was defeated. Stubborn battle in which both sides suffered heavy losses, long prevented the superiority of any one of them. The matter came up and decided to strike at the flank and rear of the Austrian troops 2 Army under the command of Crown Prince. The Austrians lost 20 thousand killed, wounded and as many as 187 shells. We must pay tribute to the superiority of the Prussian military command, especially in the face of Moltke and the Prussian arms and the whole of the Prussian military machine.
In the war against France in command of Moltke's field headquarters of the Prussian army, and in fact was a commander in the King William 1. Prussian commanders had an elaborate plan of campaign, authored by Moltke. To all the Prussian army had the advantage in numbers, training of troops, artillery, and the experience of commanding officers. August 4 at Vissambure and 6 August in Weert was divided into southern group of French troops under Marshal MacMahon, and on the same day at Forbake Prussian troops defeated and the northern group of French troops under Marshal Bazaine,
. August 16 the French were again defeated at the station Mars-la-Tour - Rezonvil, and 18 th of - at Gravelote - Saint Privat. The decisive battle of the Franco-Prussian War began Sedan. September 1 aspire to release Metz, the French army McMahon was knocked from its position 200 thousandth of the Prussian army when 774 guns under the command of von Moltke and was forced to retreat in Sedan, where lay down its arms. Among the captives was the French emperor and. The brilliant success of this victory crowned with glory Moltke first commander of his time. December 27, 1870, Mr.. Russian government awarded General of Infantry von Moltke the Order of St.. Georgia 2-nd degree '... for the war against the French in 1870'. From a government military commander was awarded the rank of Field Marshal, King William 1 elevated him to the Count's dignity Dane.
In subsequent years, von Moltke still led the Imperial General Staff, as the unquestioned authority in military science. Since 1867, Mr.. and until his death was a member of the Reichstag.
Moltke (the Elder) Helmuth Karl Von
Helmuth von Moltke was born in an impoverished Prussian nobleman in Mecklenburg. He graduated from the cadet corps in Copenhagen and later the Berlin Military Academy, received a good professional education. In 1819 he began an officer in an infantry regiment of the Danish army, which at that time served and his father.
. Persistent study of the theory of military art and commitment to staff work allowed graduates of military academies Moltke in 1827 to become head of the division's schools
. A year later he was counted among the General Staff, and in 1833 transferred to existing upon him topographical bureau.
. In 1836-1839 years, Moltke was a military adviser to Sultan Mahmud II in the Turkish army, took part in its reorganization of European style and fortification works.
. Upon his return to Prussia, he was assigned to the headquarters of the army corps, wrote a book about his business trip to Turkey and to participate in the East fighting
. Book Moltke was a great success and brought the author fame.
. Since 1848, he was chief of the General Staff Branch, then Chief of Staff of the Army Corps.
. In 1855 Moltke was appointed the first adjutant of Prince Frederick William (later Emperor Frederick III), accompanied him on trips abroad, including in Russia.
. In the years 1858-1888, General Helmuth Karl von Moltke was chief of the Prussian General Staff
. In 1871 he received the rank of Field Marshal.
In 1864, Helmuth von Moltke was appointed chief of the Union-Prussian army in the war against Denmark. This European war unequal in power over the parties joining the kingdom of Prussia Schleswig and Holstein.
. Austro-Prussian-Danish war in 1864 to become Chief of General Staff of Prussia, a platform for working out new tactics
. Moltke continues to improve the military organization of the kingdom, which soon were to unite under its auspices disparate Germanic states into a single Germanskuyu empire.
. In the war of Prussia against Austria and its allies in 1866, Moltke was Chief of Staff of the field.
. General-Field Marshal Helmuth Karl von Moltke the elder as a general famous for especially during the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871 years.
. Field Marshal von Moltke the elder was the victor in three European wars
. He not only was the actual commander of the royal army, but also preparing for these wars of Prussia. But in fairness it should be noted that all opponents of Prussia, which had a weak military forces.
In the victories, General-Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke was awarded the title of Count. Among the military decorations he had Russia's military leadership and the Order of Saint George's 2 nd degree, given to him for the victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
. Last 16 years of his tenure as Chief of General Staff Moltke was developing a plan of campaign against war Germanskoy Empire against Russia and France.
. Helmuth von Moltke the elder died at the age of ninety years in Berlin
. After him, Chief of the Imperial General Staff of Germany was his nephew, Helmuth von Moltke the younger, to inherit and the title of Count. However, he only rose to the rank of colonel-general and was sacked at the end of World War I. Grand-nephew of the elder Moltke, Helmuth, too, was executed in World War II for involvement in a plot to assassinate Adolph Hitler.