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Peter Ackroyd

( English poet, novelist, critic.)

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Biography Peter Ackroyd
Ackroyd, Peter (Ackroyd, Peter) (p. 1949) - English poet, novelist, critic.
Born in London on October 5, 1949. Mother - clerks (according to Ackroyd, something like 'employee of the personnel department'). Father, who left the family when the child was still very small, he does not remember.

Having won a scholarship to study at Clare College (Cambridge), graduated from the school in 1971 with a degree of 'Master of Arts'. From 1971 to 1973, as Mellonovsky Fellow, studied at Yale University. This period coincided with familiarity and active communication with the poets of the New York School of DA Ashbury and K. Koch. At the same time formed the literary views Ackroyd. A considerable role was played by D. Ashbury (for nine years spent in France, he perfectly mastered the latest French aesthetics and literary criticism, and actively shared his knowledge)

. The first major literary performance Ackroyd has a collection of poems' London miser "(London Lickpenny, . 1973), . published shortly after returning home (the emergence of interest in poetry, . as well as intense poetry classes are more time training in Cambridge),
. The book is easily discernible influence of the poetry of TS Eliot, as well as strong desire to follow the post-modern trends. The result is: Peter Porter, a reviewer of the newspaper 'The Observer', admitted that he did not understand most of the printed book of poems. However, Ackroyd not going to abandon the chosen poetics. Subsequently, he published two collections of poetry - "Rural Life" (Country Life, 1978) and "Entertainment Perle and other poems" (The Diversions of Purley and Other Poems, 1987), but being a novelist, more to the verse did not come back. Nevertheless, he argued that the best of his poetry, his prose is inherited.

Was met with unfriendly and the book "Notes on the new culture. An essay on modernism "(Notes for a New Culture: An Essay on Modernism, FW. - 1973, published. - 1976), which sets out the theoretical views Ackroyd. In this work, written shortly before graduation from Yale University, shows the influence of the French intellectual thought. According to the author, . True modernism originates in the work of Mallarme and S. F. Nietzsche, . in its entirety before the works of D. Joyce and his contemporaries perceived Ackroyd: if literature is still the same DA Ashbury, . then in literary criticism - Derrida and Jacques Lacan,

Sent by the author for review, the book was subjected to crushing the dispersion. A review, . published by the London newspaper 'Sunday Times', . Professor K. Ricks, . specialist in English literature, . listing numerous factual and even spelling mistakes, . Admitted Ackroyd, . regarded his work as a 'work of the young graduate student',
. Perhaps, . the hard tone of the reviewer is not due in part to, . that Ackroyd was not merely an ordinary author, . a leading member of the magazine 'Spectator', . where from 1973 to 1977, initially worked as a literary editor (1973-1977), . later editor-coordinator (1978-1982) and film critic,

Published almost simultaneously study "The masked. Transvestism and sexy clothes of the opposite sex. History of obsession "(Dressing Up: Transvestism and Drag, . the History of an Obsession, . 1979) and Ezra Pound and his world "(Ezra Pound and His World, . 1980) showed, . what, . Although Ackroyd is still interested in the artistic avant-garde aesthetic quest, . His interests modernism is not confined,

The subsequent novel "The Great Fire of London" (The Great Fire of London, 1982) - the first prosaic experience - in many ways anticipates further searches Ackroyd, novelist. The readers of the peculiar variation on the theme of the novel Charles Dickens, Little Dorrit, where the classic characters are plunged into modern circumstances. The attempt of one of the heroes of the novel - director - to recreate Dickensian London is doomed to failure. Connection between the past and the present is not straightforward. Thus, the heroine, the operator considers itself a medium, with whose help the main character embodies Dickens novel. The denouement is tragic: perturbed by the presence of the actress on the set, depicting Tiny Dorrit, she sets fire to the scenery, and film director dies. Novelist brilliantly reproduces the style and all the signs of the art world Charles Dickens.

The novel "The testament of Oscar Wilde" (The Last Testament of Oscar Wilde, 1983), marked by Somerset Maugham Award (1984), written on behalf of the protagonist. Selected form of personal diary, which allegedly led Wilde shortly before his death, from August to November 1900, also allows the author to demonstrate the outstanding abilities of the simulator. According to critics, aphorisms, by Ackroyd and assigned Wilde, bear comparison with the original

. While working on a biography of TS Eliot before Ackroyd was some serious limitations (due to legal and ethical reasons it was forbidden to give any quotes from the letters was TS Eliot, . cited unpublished poems, . and fragments of poems published to reduce the statutory minimum),
. Despite these difficulties, the biography of a poet was written. The audience and critics praised the book, TS Eliot (T. S. Eliot, 1984), as evidenced by Heinemann Prize and the Whitbread Award in the category 'biography' (both - 1984). Subsequently Ackroyd claimed that the restrictions forced him to become more resourceful and abandon linearity presentation

. Roman "Houksmur" (Hawksmoor, . 1985) - Whitbread prize in the category 'novel' and the prize 'Guardian' in the category 'literature' (both - 1985) - was partly a variation on the theme of verses I. Sinclair, . who wrote about the mystical power, . which give rise to six churches, . built by architect N. Houksmurom at the time of Queen Anne,
. However, the novel is not mystical. Past and present again enter into the complex interactions shine through each other. Wonder Ackroyd once said: 'I do not believe that the past is certainly in the past. It is forever, it is - is always around us'

. The architect Nicholas Dyer (for a sketch of the character traits used in the real N. Houksmura) lives in London 18., . he builds the Church and, . driven by the belief, . what evil is a force, . which manages the world (he - Manichaean), . in the grounds of their buildings puts a mandatory victim - an innocent child,
. Detective Nicholas Houksmur (namesake of the famous architect 18.) Lives in London, 20 in. and deals with the fact that it was investigating a series of murders that take place near the church built by Dyer (someone kills the boys and tramps). Nicholas Dyer confronts Christopher Renou, an embodiment of empiricism and rationalism, the ideals of the Enlightenment (worth adding that such a person really existed - is an architect, rebuilt London after the devastating fire of 1666). If Dyer and Wren - antipodes, the Ren and Houksmur, although living in different times and involved different task, in a sense - look-alikes. That is why Houksmur and not able to understand what lies behind their murders under investigation. Failure leads him to the brink of insanity, but it is a twilight state suddenly allows the detective to penetrate the minds Dyer. Lines that run parallel to the story, . is intertwined, . how hard are interwoven divorced in time the fate of characters (an important role here plays the scene, . where both the hero - Dyer and Housmur - represent themselves as children under the arches of the church: the church is, . Unlike the six other, . mentioned in the novel, . actually existed, . and created imaginative novelist),
. Despite the fact that the novel raised serious ethical questions, the author, in his words, are not interested in their decision. He considers Houksmur novel, written in imitation of the prose 18. As a kind of 'linguistic exercise'.

More difficult to build novel "Chatterton" (Chatterton, 1987), which critics are unanimous in considering the best novel Ackroyd - he was included in the shortlist of the Booker Prize for 1988 in the category 'fiction'.

Figure T. Chatterton in his own sign for the English culture. The young poet, who lived in the 18 century., Was the creator of one of the most famous fakes in the history of literature: poetry subtly styled, he gave them for works of T. Rowley, a monk, supposedly lived in the 15 century.. Stylize was so masterly that the idea of the true author of a long time nobody came to mind - the poems to be considered authentic. The young poet, however, found neither fame nor wealth - he died at the age of eighteen years, poisoned by arsenic. As yet, not clear whether it was suicide or an accident. But that is not interested in Ackroyd. It is important to the other - the mechanisms underlying the fraud and plagiarism. And if one line of a multi-faceted novel is devoted to the very T. Chatterton and 18 in language. So beloved novelist, the other - is the story of a portrait of long-deceased poet, which is being an artist H. Wallis. His goal - a portrait that would be the only 'true' portrait of a young genius, in this case for a portrait of the dead T. Chatterton poses surviving writer D. Meredith (thus, the forgery is fake 'second degree'). Third line, . strictly modern, . where duplicated forgery 'in ennoy degree': one of the heroes of Scripture itself forges T. Chatterton, . who happily lived to see the gray hair - the death was imaginary - and even wrote some verses, . attributed to William Blake, . heroine-writer deals with plagiarism, . 'obiraya' the unknown author of the Victorian era, . etc.,

Characteristic not only of interest to the topic of authorship Ackroyd, primary and secondary text, borrowing, appropriation, styling (he range of issues typical of postmodern literature), but also auto-citations and allusions, which are many in the novel. The book, found in the library of one of the 'modern' characters called Will (a reference to the novel Testament of Oscar Wilde), another book entitled The fire scene (a reminder of the novel The Great Fire of London, but not straightforward). For Ackroyd, as for all postmodernist, there is no such thing as a 'fantasy' and 'reality', for him there are only texts, as well as their hierarchy

. Novels "First Light" (First Light, . 1989), . where a mixture of different genres from the pastoral to science fiction and Gothic, . most interesting fact, . it - the only novel Ackroyd, . in any way not associated with London (the rest of the action unfolds against the backdrop of the great city or within it),

Biography "Dickens" (Dickens, 1990) written with complete conviction, that her hero was 'such a large figure, and such an amorphous figure that can take any form according to your needs'. The peculiarity of the approach Ackroyd to biographical material in that it fundamentally does not intend here to separate the truth from fiction. Study the life of any man surely encounters an insurmountable obstacle - nobody knows, . he thought and felt really, . attempt the same reconstruction, . essentially, . is an attempt to conceptual reading and interpretation, . hence, . method of creating biography no different from the method of creating novel,
. Therefore Ackroyd wrote five interludes, . which has imaginary conversations with Dickens, . but Dickens speaks with literary idols of the Ackroyd - O. Wilde, . TS Eliot, . T. Chatterton, and some of his literary heroes, . with separate interlude devoted to sleep on Dickens, . dreamed Ackroyd,

The subsequent novel "English Music" (English Music, 1992), a kind of imaginary and belletrizovannaya autobiography of the novelist did not become a major event.

In a well-run scheme built novel House of Doctor Dee (The House of Doctor Dee, 1993). The house, located in Klarkenuelle (eastern part of old London), live famed Elizabethan alchemist John Dee and the modern scientist, Matthew Palmer, who shared time and space together. The narrative is that of a person, then on behalf of another character.

Not new and reception, as well as prototekst used in the novel Dan Leno and Laymhaussky Golem "(Dan Leno and the Limehouse Golem, 1994), called in the Russian translation of" The Process of Elizabeth Cree ". The succession of mysterious murders that rocked the London suburb, and the legend of the Golem (in any form, from books to G. Meyrink German expressionist films) - a complication and the source material of the novel. However, the author describes with great vividness and character portraits of characters - is an actor and music hall, Dan Leno, and George Gissing and Karl Marx.

Biography "Blake" (Blake, 1995) is interesting because the author wishes to avoid the usual extremes in the depiction favorite hero, but because the great English poet, and he's not crazy, and not visionary. But the novel Milton in America "(Milton in America, 1997) pure fancy on the theme '. Fleeing persecution, classic English literature slipping in New England, where he became the head that he created the Puritan community.

After a long break once spoiled literary awards Ackroyd once again received the award, this time it's Memorial Award James Tait Black's nomination in the 'Biography' (1998) for his book "The Life of Thomas More" (The Life of Thomas More, 1998). Logically, a biography of the author of Utopia was followed by a dystopia - the novel "The manuscripts of Plato" (The Plato Papers, 1999), whose action unfolds in the distant future. Namesake ancient Greek philosopher serves as a lecturer, . which tells the inhabitants of the ruins of the once-existing city of London, . how they lived once people, . funny interpreting some realities of our everyday, . that long ago does not exist,

London - not so much real as imagined, created through the efforts of writers 19 and 20 centuries. city - is, in all probability, not only central, but the only theme in the work of Ackroyd. He spoke about it with constant warmth and tenderness: 'London has always gave room for my imagination'. And because the undoubted success has become a kind of chronicle of "London: Biography" (London: The Biography) (2000), for which Ackroyd on an annual South Bank Show Award for Literature (2001). In a sense, the development of the same theme, only more extensive material is the work of "Albion. Sources of the English imagination "(Albion: The Origins of the English Imagination, 2002), which outlined the history of British culture, from Anglo-Saxon period to modern.

The very title of the book "Klarkenuellskie stories" (The Clerkenwell Tales, 2003) refers to Chaucer's Canterbury Tales D.. Time of action - 1399. According to Ackroyd, he took Chaucer's characters and put them in other circumstances. The author also underlines the authenticity of the language of the narrator: getting ready for work, he had delved into the many medieval works, whether treatises on medicine or geography. This method is typical of Ackroyd, he is very careful approach to collecting material and recognizes that the true pleasure for him - to accumulate the facts and then classify them.

The writer proceeded to the biography of William Shakespeare, as well as working on a series of biographies under the title Brief biography. In addition, Ackroyd began a series of popular science books for children Travels in time. In the light went out of the book "Start" (The Beginning) and "Escape from Earth" (Escape From Earth, both - 2003), in 2004 - "Ancient Egypt".

Some books Ackroyd created during work on TV series. So trehseriyny television film made by BBC News, appeared on the screen simultaneously with the publication of the book "Dickens. Public life and the secret passions "(Dickens: Public Life and Private Passion, 2002), a television series about London, created by the same company - simultaneously with the book" Illustrated London "(Illustrated London, 2003).

The first piece Ackroyd The Mystery of Charles Dickens was delivered in 2000 and then filmed

. Among other works is called "Introduction to Dickens'" (Introduction to Dickens, . 1991) and a collection of "Articles, . Reviews, . essay, . stories, . lectures "(The Collection: Journalism, . Reviews, . Essays, . Short Stories, . Lectures, . 2001), . which included material about the theater, . film and literature, . written for both the 'Spectator', . and for the newspaper 'Times', . where Ackroyd since 1986 is the principal book reviewer,
. He regularly serves as a browser and on the radio.

Ackroyd - a member of the Royal Society of Literature (1984), the most recent of his awards - award CBE (2003).

Ackroyd is extremely popular and highly paid author (only for books about Dickens and Blake in the early 1990's, he received an advance of 650 thousand. pounds). Genesis of language and language game is most important to Ackroyd. It is on this basis, critics attribute his work to postmodernism (the word, never consuming Ackroyd to themselves).

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