Theodore Maiman( physicist)
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Biography Theodore Maiman
Theodore X. Meiman down in history as a physicist who pioneered in the world managed to obtain a laser effect in the solid. As they created a solid-state laser active material was a ruby cylindrical rod, and the excitation was achieved using optical pumping (flash bulbs). To ensure a ruby crystal population inversion energy levels of the lamp operated in the extra-short flashes, which provided a pulse mode laser.
. Theodore Maiman (or just Ted, as he was then called) was born in 1927
. Los Angeles. His father worked as an electronics engineer at Bell Labs and was the inventor. For many years he spent on it to prove the need for electronic devices in cars. While his proposal did not arouse interest, but within a few years, all vehicles were equipped with the proposed electronic device. A talented engineer and an educated man, he anticipated widespread use of electronics in various fields of human activity and, in particular, the introduction of its achievements in medicine. It was he who invented the first electronic stethoscope.
Senior Meiman Ted inculcated from childhood love of electronics and scientific research. At age 12, the boy helped his father repair a variety of electronic devices, and at 14 he was already working in the studio of one of the companies. In 1949, Mr.. Theodore Maiman graduated from the University of Colorado and received a bachelor's degree in technical physics. At that time he dreamed of working at the Department of Physics, Stanford University, and after several unsuccessful attempts yet reached the goal.
At Stanford T. Maiman made the first steps to success. Work under the supervision of the Nobel Prize in. Lamb gave him just such training, which was necessary for the practical realization of the idea of laser. Meumann thesis was devoted to optical and microwave measurements, he studied various ways to obtain optical radiation and then the existing optical measuring instruments. Because of financial difficulties, he develops and makes it necessary to conduct experiments of special electronic equipment. In 1955, Mr.. T. Maiman received his doctorate in philosophy.
Meiman always been a great original. After receiving his degree, having reached a certain social status, and partly to satisfy his ambitions, he decided to suspend the study and go on world tour. Meiman prepared a successor who could continue the experiments they set up equipment. It was also. Vader, his only companion and assistant, whose name was subsequently included in the history of creation of the laser. Returning from the world tour, Meiman began working in the laboratory of Hughes Research, one of many included in the race a laser. This problem involved the major research centers: Bell Labs, RCA Labs, etc.
Difficulties encountered by the young and then little-known scientist who had been enormous. Despite the fact that Meiman had considerable research experience, no one believed him. His theoretical and practical studies found no support, funding was scarce. When as a material for the laser, he chose a ruby, venerable scholars have raised him to laugh. Understanding the properties of ruby and experience with him as a material that can serve as a source of coherent radiation, he was still in graduate school at Stanford University. There was a time when, weary of fruitless effort and ridicule, Meiman even refused to use the ruby. This decision was influenced by experiments and. Vader, who found that the quantum efficiency of radiation of the ruby is very low (about 1%). T. Meiman turned to the study of other materials, but the alternative is not found.
And then with extraordinary tenacity, irritation and derision, he returned to his experiments with a ruby. Through repeated experiments Meiman found that the results were erroneous Vader. Quantum efficiency of ruby radiation was found to be 75%.
While most scientists have tried to create a continuous laser. These works were based mainly on the appeared in 1958. famous article E. Skolou and K. Townes, expounded the idea of an optical laser and is proposed for the generation of coherent optical radiation of sodium vapor and not solid. Meiman was true to himself and went ahead contrary to popular opinion. Acquainted with the theory of A. Schawlow and H. Townes and having concluded that it will not work, he took up construction of its laser. Using the brightest bulb with a reflector elipsoidnym, he became convinced of the possibility of building the laser operating in continuous mode. However, the reliability of this laser was very low. Find innovative solutions led him to think about the feasibility of using high-brightness stroboscopic lights used in photography (flash units). Past Meiman calculations (at the time they were made only on the slide rule!) Showed that these tubes do provide optical pumping, and he used them to create a pulsed ruby laser.
. Ruby crystal, with whom he worked Meiman, had the form of a rod on the end surfaces of which was necessary to form a reflecting mirror
. In 1960, Mr.. technology to create multi-layer film coatings for laser mirrors had only the largest laboratories. T. Meiman independently developed the technology of applying silver to ruby rod and carried it out.
May 16, 1960, Mr.. T. Maiman created the world's first ruby laser. It took 9 months of tremendous effort, work in an atmosphere of ridicule, disbelief, lack of money. He walked into this competition, leading companies such as Lincoln Labs, IBM, Westinghouse, Siemens, RCA Labs, GE, Bell Labs, TRG, and many others.
July 7, 1960, Mr.. at a specially convened press conference T. Maiman announced the creation of the laser and talked about possible areas of use: communication, medicine, military equipment, trans-port and high technology. The invention has received widespread publicity. The newspapers reported that a scientist from the Los Angeles invented the "death ray".
Several months later, in 1961, Bell Labs announced the establishment of the first sample of the gas laser, operating on a mixture of helium and neon in a continuous mode. Was then obtained by the laser effect on the cesium vapor, and began to demonstrate the possibilities of constructing lasers literally hundreds of different materials.
According T. Meiman, its success is due to several factors. First, an excellent basic education and the great scientific and practical experience. Secondly, the fact that in achieving the goal he has always avoided the traditional views based on "immutable" postulates of scientific elite. That "guru effect" (as he called it T. Meiman) did not allow other scientists to achieve success.
Since H. Townes was one of the Nobel Prize 1964. "for basic research in the field of quantum electronics, which led to the creation of generators and amplifiers, a new type - masers and lasers," appeared some skepticism about the primacy of T. Meumann in the invention of the laser. This is a vivid example of the conventions in determining the priority of certain discoveries in science, as well as the fact that the societies of not always in a hurry for a tribute to pioneers. It is known that A. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize "for their important physical and mathematical research, especially for his discovery of the laws of the photoelectric effect" only in 1921. - 16 years after he created the theory of. V. Roentgen received the award in 1901. - Six years after its immortal opening. Opening in. Fabrikant was generally rejected as unrealistic.
But "no one disputes the fact that I made the first laser," - says the T. Meiman. And again: "If they did so, then where the hell their laser?" - And took from his pocket the very first laser, which he founded in 1960
T. Maiman founded Korad producing lasers. Then, create a company Maiman Associates, which in 1976. teamed with TRW. He became its vice-president for emerging technologies.
In addition to the basic patent for the creation of the world's first laser, T. Meiman patented certain types of masers, lasers, laser displays, optical scanning devices. T. Meiman was awarded many prestigious awards, including a prize at the International Optical Society - SPIE, the U.S. President's awards, an analogue of the Nobel Prize in Asian countries - Japan Prize, etc.
Since 1983, Mr.. T. Meiman carried away by the use of lasers in medicine. He continues to work, preparing specialists in this field and believes that the work is his life's happiness.
Today, lasers are widely used in various fields of human activity. They have become part of everyday life in the form of laser discs, ukazok, printers, etc.. In communications technology, lasers can not be imagined without the modern fiber-optic and atmospheric communications, optical amplifiers, optical communication between the spacecraft. In the technology of high power lasers are used for precision materials processing and consolidation of surfaces. In the environment they provide precise monitoring of the environment. In medicine, lasers replace the scalpel with the finest surgical operations, and also widely used in the diagnosis and treatment. Many defense systems, lasers are also central. And with good reason in 2000. been awarded another Nobel Prize for research directly related to the laser: M. Alferov G. Kramer got it for the development of semiconductor structures for high-speed communications and optoelectronics.