NOIORI Ryoji( Chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001)
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Biography NOIORI Ryoji
NOIORI, Ryoji (Noyori, Ryoji) (p. 1938) (USA). Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001 (jointly with W. Knowles and k.B.Sharplessom).
Ryoji Noiori was born Sept. 3, 1938 in a suburb of Kobe in the family Kaneko and Suzuki Noiori. His father was the head of a chemical company that had an impact on the subsequent fate of the future winner. His father drove the boy with him at scientific conferences, and he had 12 years to really feel the power of chemistry. After primary school Noiori studied in middle and high school Nada, from 12 to 18 years. Here its chemical enthusiastically supports teachers. Three years Noiori determine their choice - to engage in organic chemistry. In 1967 he defended his thesis at the same university.
In 1966 Noiori opened, probably the first case of asymmetric organometallic catalysis, which has defined its continuing interest in the problem. The reaction of styrene with etildizoatsetatom in the presence of chiral catalysts based on copper compounds led to the stereoselective formation of cyclopropane derivative. The term 'chirality' as the asymmetry of the molecule previously entered into a permanent everyday life Nobel Prize winner Vladimir Prelog.
Assess the situation realistically a future Nobel laureate Elias Corey 1990 Noiori offered internships in their U.S. laboratory, but it took place not at once.
The reason for this was the proposal in 1968, 29-year-old Noiori head the new laboratory of organic chemistry at Nagoya University, where he created a new trend - organic synthesis with organometallic.
In 1969 Noiori was at Harvard at Cory. Here he is, incidentally, met the future Nobel laureate K. B. Sharpless, and contacts with scientists, developed in the period of stay here, largely oposobstvovali active follow-up scientist. It was then Noiori interested in the problem of chiral hydrogenation, and W. Knowles, just (in 1968) published his first work in this area.
Back at Nagoya University, Noiori in 33 years (in 1972) became a professor and continued his studies in the field of organic synthesis using organometallic catalysis. In 1978 his group was prepared optically pure catalyst Binap, which brought him success in the implementation of the stereoselective hydrogenation.
As a result, laboratory or industrial synthesis of molecules nehiralnyh usually a mixture of enantiomers. For one of the enantiomers, ie. for chiral synthesis, chiral effects required. Thus, for hydrogenation nehiralnoy molecules in a single enantiomer of a chiral catalyst required for hydrogenation reactions.
We had to develop a common methodology directed chiral synthesis, first and foremost, it is to be implemented for the most common organic reactions - reduction and oxidation.
The first chiral catalyst in the reduction reaction - namely, hydrogenation, was developed by American chemist William Knowles in 1968 for the synthesis of drugs 'levodopa' during his work in pharmaceutical companies 'Monsanto'. Synthesis of this drug, which is the amino acid, the reaction is carried out by hydrogenation in the presence of a catalyst - ions of rhodium. Jonah, of course, nehiralny. However, they form complexes. If you make a complex with an enantiomer of a chiral ligand, then the catalyst is a chiral. Knowles suggested as a ligand enantiomer of a chiral molecule organophosphorus compounds - Dipamp'a and as a result of successfully solved the problem of industrial production 'levodopa'.
So, in principle, to create a chiral catalyst requires two components - the metal ion and pure enantiomer of a chiral ligand.
Noiori merit consists in the development of another chiral ligand, called Binap'om. The enantiomers of this substance Noiori prepared a ruthenium complex with the cation, which was used for hydrogenation reactions in the industrial synthesis of anti-inflammatory drug naproxen.
The next success came in 1986, when the laboratory was created Noiori complex Binap'a with dicarboxylates ruthenium and other similar complexes. These catalysts were suitable for the recovery of various types of multiple bonds. Further range of interests Noiori spread to a number of other enantioselective reactions - isomerization, accession, etc.. In addition, he was engaged and the general problems of organic synthesis: oxidation of olefins, polymerization of acetylenes, silicone compounds, and even the synthesis of DNA oligomers
. Chiral catalysis of hydrogenation reactions made possible the synthesis of enantiomers of chiral molecules is very simple, which can be used as building blocks - synthons for the preparation of complex chiral structures of natural origin
. Methods stereooselektivnogo hydrogenation has made available many terpenes, vitamins, amino acids, antibiotics, alkaloids, prostaglandins and other biologically important compounds, and a number of them began to produce industrial. That such a scheme was used, for example, for the synthesis of the antibiotic levoflaksina, where he was employed one of the optical isomers of 1,2-propanediol
. . In 2001 Noiori was awarded the Nobel Prize in half with W. Knowles, 'for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions'
. The second half of the premiums received B. Sharpless. The Nobel Prize in 2001 illustrates that the path from basic research to their technical implementation may be extremely short.
Especially prominent role of these discoveries in the industry - in the production of new drugs, pheromones, pesticides, food additives, vitamins, chiral synthons, etc..
Discovery of Nobel laureates in 2001 inspired the search for new schemes of catalytic asymmetric synthesis, the feasible set of research groups around the world. These findings make a significant contribution not only in chemistry, but also in material science, biology and medicine, opening the way for new molecules - carriers are unexplained and unexpected properties of the molecular world.
Noiori consists of a number of government committees and boards in the field of science and culture, part of the editorial board of many journals.