Henri Moissan( Chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1906.)
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Biography Henri Moissan
Moissan, Henri (Moissan, Henri) (1852-1907) (France). Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906.
Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan was born September 28, 1852 in Paris. His father was a railroad employee, and his mother a dressmaker. When in 1864 the family moved to Muassanov Mo, the boy entered the municipal gymnasium. In high school future scientists met a talented teacher of mathematics and natural sciences. Moissan became so purposefully to study chemistry, that neglected other subjects and at the end of the school in 1870 was not accepted to the university.
After two years of service, assistant pharmacist, he began working at the Museum of Natural History at the chemist Frema. In 1874 joined the laboratory of Pierre Paul Degerena (1830-1902) in the Higher Polytechnic School, where he studied the physiology of plants. Degeren persuaded him to complete her education, and he entered the University of Paris, where in 1974 to earn a BA and three years later - Master. In 1880 Muassanu was awarded a doctoral degree in inorganic chemistry for work on the oxides of chromium.
To earn a living, Moissan some time led the industrial laboratory, and from 1879 to 1883 worked as an assistant lecturer at the Higher School of Pharmacy in Paris and conducted laboratory classes there.
In 1886, Moissan was elected professor of toxicology at the Higher School of Pharmacy, where three years later became a professor of inorganic chemistry, and since 1900 he - professor at the Sorbonne.
Financial aid family wife Moissan allowed him to concentrate on the problem of obtaining fluorine. Previously, all attempts to provide free fluorine by electrolysis of molten fluoride salts failed, . because at high temperature, . is required for this, . liberated fluorine react with water, . receptacle, . where the reaction took place, . with electrodes,
Anhydrous Hydrogen fluoride does not conduct electric current. Given this fact, Moissan 26 June 1886 was able to provide free fluoride, using as an electrolyte, anhydrous potassium fluoride, dissolved in anhydrous hydrofluoric acid, platinum-iridium electrodes and the apparatus of the platinum tube. However, . when it is time to demonstrate his discovery before the members of the Paris Academy of Sciences (Pierre Eugц?ne Marcellin Berthelot, . Edmond Frema (1814-1894) and Jules Henri Debray (1827-1888), . Moissan was unable to obtain fluoride - the current does not go through the hydrofluoric acid,
. Too good Moissan prepared for the demonstration and purification of acid overplayed. I had to add to her potassium fluoride, and experience has played. It happened the very next day after the ill-fated demonstration.
Due to technical difficulties associated with obtaining fluorine at high temperatures, Moissan studied the chemical properties of fluoride at very low temperatures. However British chemist James Dewar (1842-1923) he received a liquid fluorine at -185 б° C, which even at this temperature continued to react with hydrogen and hydrocarbons.
He investigated and compounds of fluorine with metals: platinum, alkaline earth metals, silver and manganese, as well as with non-metals, having yodpentaftorid and nitrilftorid. The work was extremely harmful, since fluorine compounds are highly toxic. Later he said of this period: 'Fluoride was taken from me 10 years of life'.
He had hoped to receive diamonds decomposition of hydrofluorocarbons. Despite the fact that these attempts failed, he conducted analytical work on diamonds indicated that they often contain traces of iron. It was known that iron dissolves carbon and that diamonds are formed under conditions of high temperature and high pressure. Therefore Moissan was trying to get diamonds, exposing the high pressure molten iron saturated with carbon. He dipped a carbon containing molten iron into cold water. This carbon-rich iron expanded inside formed as a result of cooling of iron crust and thus create a high internal pressure. Moissan hoped that this technology will bring him success, but hopes were dashed.
Despite the fact that the work of Moissan production of diamonds has been fruitless, they developed the technology was of great practical importance. To achieve extremely high temperatures, he constructed an electric arc furnace, where the temperature reaches the heating 3500 б° C. This device consisted of two blocks of limestone carved from the inside to confine crucible. Two graphite electrodes were inserted into the holes, through which electric current was passed
. Taking advantage of its electric oven, Moissan studied the conditions of melting and evaporation of metals, which were considered to be unnatural to shift the evaporated (zirconium, molybdenum, manganese, chromium, thorium, tungsten, platinum, uranium, titanium and vanadium)
. In particular, he was pure molybdenum (1895) and tungsten (1897). Moissan discovered that at very high temperatures, carbon, boron and silicon, which are inactive at ordinary temperatures, react with many elements and form, respectively, carbides, borides and silicides. He also received silicon carbide (carborundum) and some hydrides.
In addition, Moissan developed the technology to produce pure boron
. Moissan began to nominate for the Nobel Prize in 1901, . and this lasted until 1906, . when it was awarded to him 'for a considerable amount of research he has done, . for obtaining the element fluorine, and an introduction to laboratory and industrial practice of electric furnace, . called his name ',
. From Nobel speech Moissan did not speak, tk. was already seriously ill and died two months after the Award.
With a wide range of interests, Moissan loved art, and a student even wrote a play. He collected paintings, prints and autographs, especially the era of the French Revolution, and was very fond of traveling. Employment experiments did not prevent him to write a five-volume Course of mineral chemistry (1904-1906).
By shifting the brutal attack of appendicitis, Moissan February 16, 1907 lay down on the operation. Chronic heart failure and years of working with toxic chemicals weakened his body, and four days later he died in Paris at the age of 54 years.