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CRANE Stephen

( American writer)

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Biography CRANE Stephen
CRANE, STEPHEN (Crane, Stephen) (1871-1900), American writer. Born November 1, 1871 in Newark (pc. New Jersey) in a large family of Methodist ministers. Studied without much zeal, has replaced several schools (Lafayette College, Syracuse University, etc.) and distraction to journalism, writing and baseball. In 1891, he worked at his brother's news agency. The following year he moved to New York, became a newspaper reporter, rented a room in a slum area. On the life of the inhabitants of the New York rooming house told his first novel, Maggie, . street girl "(Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, . 1893), . story of a young worker, . abandoned seducer, . rejected by the family and in despair committed suicide,
. Externally, the plot and characters of "Maggie" commonplace moralistic literature, . but the novel takes on the depth, . when exposures from sinner to condemnation of the heroine becomes deaf callousness, . turning the lives of the lower strata of society in the likeness of the jungle,
. Publishers rejected "Maggie", and Crane published a novel at his own expense under the pseudonym Johnston Smith (Johnston Smith). The book is not sold, but was endorsed by H. Garland and William D. Howells, who sent copies of the writer.

In 1894 a shortened version of the novel about the Civil War "Red Badge of Courage" (The Red Badge of Courage) have published hundreds of newspapers. Individual complete edition of the novel in 1895 brought the author fame and financial success. In 1896, he reissued "Maggie" moderate moralism and soften the language. In the same year came the novels "Mother of George" (George's Mother, . 1896), . realistic picture of the collapse of relations between the prodigal son and a religious mother; "The Third Violet" (The Third Violet, . 1896), . romantic love story of New York artists, "On active service" (Active Service, . 1899); "O'Ruddi" (The O'Ruddy, . 1903, . R. Barr completed after his death),

Emboldened by success in prose, the writer published his poetry. Poems in the book "Black Riders and other lines" (The Black Riders and Other Lines, 1895) inspired by the poetry of E. Dickinson and combined motif wandering poet. In the book "Good War" (War is kind, 1899) includes early and late poetry. Crane is known as a master of psychological narrative (collections of "The Little Regiment" - The Little Regiment, 1896; Beast and other stories "- The Monster and Other Stories, 1899;" Uilomvilskie stories "- Whilomville Stories, 1900). Reporter's experience worthy of artistic expression found in the collections of short stories "boat" and other adventure stories (The Open Boat and Other Tales of Adventure, 1898), "Wounded in the rain" (Wounds in the Rain, 1900).

In 1895, Crane traveled to the western states and Mexico, and wrote a series of essays for newspapers. In later stories, created the "Blue Hotel" (The Blue Hotel) and "Like a bride came to Yellow Sky," (The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky) is a journey echoed not only local color, . but realistic pictures civilizing of the American West,
. At the end of 1896 Crane departed to Cuba. Cudno, where he went, sinking, and Crane miraculously reached the shore (later the story was the basis textbook story "Lifeboat"). In 1897 he sent reports from the theater of the Greco-Turkish War. After it finished, settled in England. Among his literary friends - G. James, Dzh.Konrad, G. Wells. In recent years, the writer's life were marred by tuberculosis and debts, forced to work tirelessly. Crane died in Badenweiler June 5, 1900.

Kerin's famed "Red Badge of roblesti" - a novel of lost illusions. Romantic notions of war-northerner recruit Henry Fleming overthrows the reality of war prose, with its monotony, confusion and carnage. Coward during the attack Southerners, the hero tries to 'logically' to justify themselves, to suppress fear, dreams of a 'little scarlet Badge of Courage'. Ironically, his dream is coming true: the other fleeing from the enemy soldiers in panic hits him the butt of a gun, and the wound on his head is evidence of participation in the battle, Henry. Later, he himself becomes accustomed to this thought, affects all his bravado, but for the bombast of his thinking lies the irony, admitting that it is only self-hypnosis, another illusion. In the image war, Crane showed himself grateful reader of military prose Tolstoy. He likes the naturalism, the master of impressionistic writing, Crane was a founding father of modern American literature. His lessons learned T. Dreiser, Dzh.T.Farrel, Ernest Hemingway and the authors 'steep detective', and in poetry - K. Sandberg and imazhisty.

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