KARP VEGA Lope Felix de( Spanish dramatist, founder of the Spanish national drama.)
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Biography KARP VEGA Lope Felix de
KARP VEGA, Lope FöLlix de (Vega Carpio, Lope FöLlix de) (1562-1635), Spanish dramatist, the founder of the Spanish national drama.
Born October 25, 1562 in Madrid, the son of an artisan-Embroidery. He studied at the University of Alcala de Henares. Literary talent manifested itself very early - his first play, "The true lover," he wrote as early as 1574-1575. Since that time earned his living primarily literary work, creating a huge number of plays, both on a variety of genres and topics. By his own testimony, the number of plays more than 800, but his first biographer, MONTALVö¦N, claimed that Lope de Vega wrote the 1800 comedy, and 400 auto. Save Text 470 pieces. In addition, being a man of diverse talents, and worked in other literary genres: he wrote poems, songs, short stories, as well as a theoretical basis for their creative principles in the poem "The new art of writing comedy in our time" (1609). This incredible literary fecundity even more amazed that he lived a very stormy life full of love stories and adventures, which did not prevent the adoption of a dignity and even a priest belonging to the Inquisition
. Becoming world-Lope de Vega had a period of national Spanish Reconquista of the popular movement (literally - 'reconquest'), . which aims to free the country from Moorish domination, . lasted about five centuries, . and the revival of national consciousness,
. This was directly reflected in his work. On the one hand, the love of the fatherland and freedom-loving motives literally permeate the dramatic works by Lope de Vega - that is characteristic of all the writers of the High Renaissance. However, the playwright, there are other creative features, . associated with the Spanish reality - for example, . consistent interest in the genre of autosomes (auto sacramental - 'sacred act') - performances, . is playing at the celebration of Christ's body and connected with the sacrament of the Eucharist,
. Auto in Spain, unlike in other European countries where religious theater flourished only in the Middle Ages, have survived until the second half 18., And their literary adaptations started it by Lope de Vega. Secular relationship with the church in Spain after the victory of the Reconquista very distinctive features, especially - in the theater. Secular and religious theaters existed in isolation, without interacting, but not really interfering with each other. Formally, the Spanish church belonged to the secular entertainment negatively, but in fact secular playwrights, despite a very stormy and adventurous life, often taking the monastic orders and began to live by the church. Thus, Lope de Vega was a priest in 1614, and since 1624 headed the Brotherhood of the servants of the Inquisition. However, in 1625, the Council of Castile forbidden to set and publish his plays, but a year before his death, this ban was lifted. The ban, however, does not mean that the playwright did not write for almost a decade: it was during this period was written by the famous comedy "Dog in the Manger" and "silly to others and clever for itself".
With a huge number of plays written by playwright they could not be equal. Moreover, the analysis shows that the majority of his plays are based on a single plot scheme - the reunion of lovers struggling to deal with a variety of obstacles. In the Theater Studies there is an interesting hypothesis, that drama by Lope de Vega is formed on the principles of Commedia Dell'Arte: endless variations of a single plot. This hypothesis says that the Italian Commedia dell'arte troupe touring in Spain, taking advantage of the huge mass popularity. Lope de Vega's quite rigidly structured the basic plot, . Building their comedy on the general principles of art: three-act division, . ritmizirovannye dialogues (he uses mainly three poetic forms: blank verse, . People romansovy verse and sonnet form),
. In his works there are two main lines, both of them clearly felt the main reasons for the Renaissance world: love of life, striving for harmony, a heightened sense of dignity, courage, intelligence and creativity in achieving the goal
The first - a so-called. 'peasant', folk drama, the highest achievement of which was the play "Fuente Ovejuna". This is unlikely to be considered legitimate Lope de Vega, the ideologue of the peasantry or the expression of his interests. It appears that the mechanism of formation of 'peasant' subjects had been completely different, and it was caused by the same Reconquista, form many social principles and standards. The War to form a powerful national idea to unite the entire Spanish people and contribute to a blurring of class distinctions. The concept of honor in Spain was the same for the duke and the peasant, the dignity of the country directly linked to the dignity of each of its residents. This - the highest ideal of the Renaissance, which merges with the hard-won battles in the ideal of the Reconquista of Spain. That is why in the plays of Lope de Vega so powerfully liberating sound motives, motives of personal dignity and honor. This broad popular background of his plays did not contradict the ideas of fair monarchy ( "The Star of Seville", . "The punishment - not vengeance", . "The Emperor, . thrown from a cliff ", . "Salameysky mayor", . "The smartest in his house", . "Perivanes and Commander Ocana, etc.),
The second line - a so-called. 'comedy of cloak and sword', written in a brilliant poetic form, with bright vivid characters and intricate intrigue. These comedies ( "dance teacher", "Dog in the Manger," "The Valencian Widow", "Girl with a Jug", "stupid and clever for others for themselves" and many others) have become almost the only university in Spain's outlook reflects the Renaissance. It dominates the ideal world of harmony, to which the heroes invariably come as a result of resolution of all conflicts. Insoluble contradictions there, there prevails a free community of free people.
A separate line of his work, as mentioned above, are his numerous auto in which he consistently applied the methods of secular drama ( "The Reaping", "Journey of the soul", "True lies", etc.).
Lope de Vega died on Aug. 27, 1635, in Madrid. Shortly after his death, a happy period of peaceful coexistence between religious and secular theaters came to an end: the Spanish government, under pressure from the church, the beginning of the repression of the theater. His plays have been banned again. Has come quite a long period of neglect of his work: in 18. his comedies were contrary to the canons klassitsistskimi; in 19. special interest to the popular comedy, too, was. A new wave of interest in his work began only in 1930. In many ways - by Frederico Garcia Lorca, Fuente Ovejuna comes back in the student theater 'La Baraka'
. Today, Lope de Vega is not only a classic of Spanish drama, . but also the creator of an entire school of playwrights, . among them GuillöLn de Castro ( "Early life Sid", . "Feats Sid"), . Juan Ruiz de Alarcö¨n ( "Weaver of Segovia", . "The dubious truth", . "Antichrist", . "There is no blessing in disguise", etc.), . Tirso de Molina (Don Gil Green Pants ", . "Pious Martha", . Seville mischief, . or the Stone Guest "- the first in the history of dramatic treatment of the legend of Don Juan, . "Convicted of a lack of faith", etc.).,