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Domenico Scarlatti (25.10.1685 years [Naples] - 23/07/1757 Year [Madrid])

Domenico Scarlatti was born October 25, 1685 in Naples. His father, a famous composer Alessandro Scarlatti, was his first music teacher. Great musicians were other family members - brothers, Alessandro and his sons. Names not only Alessandro and Domenico, and Pietro, Tommaso, Francesco Scarlatti were known in Italy and other countries. A child Domenico showed brilliant ability to play the harpsichord and organ, but in adolescence he was appointed organist of the royal chapel in Naples. After studying with his father, he perfected in his work under the guidance of composers D. Gasperini and B. Pasquini. First piece. brought him fame - the opera 'Octavia', written in 1703.

After gaining fame in his native city, as well as in Florence and Venice, where he visited in early youth, Scarlatti in 1709 went to Rome. There his virtuoso playing has been widely recognized. Nearly ten years he was employed by various dignitaries, patronized the arts: at the Roman court, the court of Mary Queen of Poland, in the chapel of the Portuguese envoy, in the chapel Giulia in the Vatican.

. In 1715 Scarlatti was the organist at the Cathedral of St.
. Peter and served four years in office. Soon after his arrival in Rome he appeared in the 'Academy' Ottoboni, where friends with Gendelev, and this friendship lasted for many years. By this time the creation of several operas, and various works of religious music, which now features prominently in the legacy of Scarlatti, and then enjoyed an enviable success.

. From 1720 to the composer's life, a period of wandering in European capitals: he traveled to England (possibly, . Ireland), . then went to Lisbon, . where he lived from 1721 to 1728, . briefly went home, . and in 1729 settled in Madrid as court Kapellmeister,
. In Spain, Scarlatti fame reached its climax. There he wrote most of those works that forever immortalized his name - piano (clavier) Sonata. Here he acquired and talented students who heard his principles, and established his own school, which belonged to prominent musicians, including the gifted Spaniard Antonio Soler.

. But Spain, which became his second home, did not live up to expectations
. Not a brilliant skill, nor the court office and patronage of the wealthy, nor fame actor Scarlatti did not bring prosperity and calm, comfortable life. Royal Court, so wasteful and selfishly exploited his genius, turned away from him when he became old and sick; impact and consequences of his dissipated life. Scarlatti died in Madrid on July 23, 1757, leaving destitute big family. In the composer's life was published only a very small part of his writings.

. Domenico Scarlatti wrote twenty operas ( 'Octavius', . 'Iphigenia at Aulis', . 'Ifigent in Tauris', . 'Orlando', . 'Sylvia', . 'Narcissus' and others), . six oratorios and cantatas, . intended for concert performance, . Fourteen chamber cantatas, . arias and some orialov church music,
. All this - a small and artistically the least significant part of his work. Like Corelli, . it is almost entirely devoted himself to libretto, . wrote at least five hundred and fifty sonatas! When his life - in 1753 - was published only thirty of them! Composer modestly called his creation 'exercises for the harpsichord',
. Just had modest goals he set before him, taking the very publication. In the author's preface says: 'Do not wait - whether you're an amateur or professional - a deeper meaning in these works, take them as fun, to accustom themselves to the technique of the harpsichord ... Perhaps they will seem pleasant to you, and then I am ready to respond to new demands in a style even more enjoyable and varied '.

However, despite these words, it was not about fun, and not about technology alone harpsichord playing. In 'pleasant Diversity' Scarlatti sonatas, in their completely new style of revealing itself to the artist and the audience a profound and immensely rich world of poetic images. Since then the incomparable brightness and strength, they reflected the reality of life, and with it captured and the image of the author.

. Domenico Scarlatti though and looked like some of the characteristics of their famous predecessors and contemporaries, but largely from them, and different
. It is somewhat like the temperament of Tartini, Vivaldi - creative scope, Corelli - classical perfection and more concise form. True, he did not reach either the scale 'Seasons', no drama "Infernal trills' or' abandoned Dido ', nor the majestic and serene beauty' Christmas Concert '. But no one before him had failed so badly and attentively listen to the voices and the splash of folk life, . poetically and accurately capture the emotions in music, . manners, . life of many quite different people, . - At least two countries, . with whom he was connected origin, . labor, . fate.,

. His sonatas - this is not 'Ekzertsitsii', but rather small sketches and genre paintings of folk life, which may sometimes compete with realistic paintings of Caravaggio and Murillo on everyday topics
. The method by which they are created, quite peculiar. It combines, . seemingly, . polar side or elements, . given, . however, . the power of genius to the perfect artistic unity: graphically clear, . sometimes sharp picture - and the fiery brightness of color, juicy and tart folk music of language - and the elegance of the texture; diminutive scale, . conciseness of the form - and an extremely intense thematic development; homophonic warehouse - and the melodic richness of the fabric; gala concert brilliance - and chamber genre; imitation sonority plucked instruments, . especially the lute, . mandolin, . Spanish guitar - and a huge octave and chord technique,
. Sonata grows to harpsichord and requires a new firing mechanism.

There is a Scarlatti sonata and toccata-Capriccio, Sonata, Dance - a dizzying rapid HoTs, salta, zhigi, Forlan. There he and the sonata-elegy, song and melancholic. There are witty, naughty burlesque, comic bustle and they resemble miniature scenes of a theater of 'Don Quixote'. Among them there are idyllic pastorals and small dramas, suddenly emerging somewhere in the cheerful bustle of the holiday and erodible stream of sounds, before you have to listen to these voices.

. Melodic Scarlatti not the same stately and calm flowing cantilena vocal type, which was probably the main charm of the Italian violin school of the XVII century
. Her figurative and expressive and technical basis - other. Melodic Images 'Ekzertsitsii', . usually deployed in a very wide range, . are varied: sometimes they are flexible, . rounded, . fluid, . when, . spilling figuration, . runs up or slide down, but more like a composer rhythmically sharp, . crisp picture with short, . acutely expressive phrases, . mischievous, . sometimes provocatively daring throws to a wide range and separated from each other extreme registers.,

. Rhythmic depiction Scarlatti was for his time and the tool seems limitless
. Keeping reliance on rhythms and dance tunes, most often Spanish, he re-created them in hundreds of options most graceful, never restricting their movement and melodic without falling into mannerism. His riffs are energetic, elastic, expressive, natural. His famous high-handed syncopations, so extravagant, at first glance, interrupting the amount of music, and folk-dance origin.

. New, fresh paint and techniques clavier letters used Scarlatti in harmony, imprinting and summarizing are many original and valuable, overheard them in folk music.

. There is a composer and sonatas, fugues, not inferior to the famous fugam his father, and even richer and more committed to the thematic development
. Among the polyphonic repertoire of plays executed by almost all the virtuosos of the world, belongs to the so-called 'Cat's Fugue'.

. The texture of these sonatas, . varied, . changeable, . is easy and transparent, . a massive, . sometimes tenuous and fragile due to 'capture' the extreme registers of the Instrument, . always decorated with such perfection and grace, . that in itself already gives pleasure to the artist.,

. But most vividly innovation Scarlatti and his incomparable talent builder forms manifested in the creation of the old sonata, based on two different and in particular on two contrasting themes
. It was a great progressive achievement of musical art in the way of translating images of real life. The fact that Vivaldi boldly, but only occasionally performed in some concerts, Scarlatti has moved boldly in the noncyclic form of chamber music. The expressive possibilities of this one sonata expanded the breath of life fanned her, in her, as on the stage, suddenly appeared different images, characters, situations. However, all this is only superficially flashed in the busy traffic without extensive development, without the drama, the more so - no claim to the philosophical depth of artistic comprehension of reality. Yet was laid the beginning of the path leading from Scarlatti to Mozart and Beethoven.

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