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Pavlenko, Petr Andreevich

( Russian writer, scriptwriter)

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Biography Pavlenko, Petr Andreevich
Pavlenko, Petr Andreevich (1899-1951), Russian writer, scriptwriter. Born on June 26 (11 July) 1899 in St. Petersburg in the family of a minor official and a teacher. Because the mother's illness (tuberculosis), the family moved to Tiflis (Tbilisi). They lived in the poorest district in the house of a revolutionary Peter Montin, who was killed in 1905. After graduating in 1917, Tiflis real school, Pavlenko joined the Baku Polytechnic Institute, which is closely linked himself with the Bolsheviks. In the years of study dabbled in journalism, prose and poetry. In May 1920 volunteered in the Red Army, to establish Soviet power in Azerbaijan, in the same year adopted the RCP (B.). At the end of 1921 and was discharged for health reasons and moved to work in the Transcaucasian Party Regional Committee, spoke at the Tiflis newspaper 'Red Warrior', set up SM Kirov and edit some time DA Furmanov. In 1924 he was elected a delegate XIII party congress. In 1924-1927 he served in the Soviet trade delegation in Turkey and traveled extensively in Asia Minor, also visited Greece, Italy, France. Since 1925, the newspapers 'Zarya Vostoka' and 'Izvestia' (Odessa) published articles, essays and stories from the Turkish life under pseudo. Sufi, Safi and others. At that time, wrote "The thirteenth tale", dedicated to Mikhail Lermontov. At the suggestion Vs.Ivanova began work in the journal Red Virgin Soil '

. In Moscow, quickly entered the literary environment of the capital, . made friends with a group of 'Pass', . Cultured 'sincerity' and intuition in art and drew particular attention to literary techniques and formal refinement, . was reflected in the first story in the Moscow periodical Pavlenko (Joint,
. with BA Pilnyak) "Lord Byron" (1928), as well as in its written clearly and sharply, in the bizarre 'oriental' style neo-romantic 'eastern' collections of "Asian Stories" (1929), "Istanbul and Turkey" (1930 ), "Anatolia" (1932). Shortly away from 'the Heights', not taking his' inactivity in the literature', 'love for their small ... single topic ', principled apolitical. The initiative Pavlenko group of writers in 1930 traveled to Turkmenistan, communication with the satellites - N. Tikhonov, Vs.Ivanovym, L. Leonov, VA Lugovskii, GA Sannikov - he later regarded as an important stage of creative development. Published on impressions from the Central Asian story "Desert" (1931) and a collection of "Journey in Turkmenistan" (1932), marked by polished form and severity of social observation.

In 1932 came the publication of documentary novel Pavlenko about the Paris Commune "Barricades", restrained priced criticism (in t.ch. with 'warm severity' - Gorky). Activities' public-spirited ', Pavlenko was included in the organizing committee of the First Congress of Soviet Writers (1934), and then elected to the board of the Writers' Union for many years for identifying a high place in the hierarchy of the Soviet bureaucracy. In 1932-1938 edited the Journal of '30 Days', was one of the closest aides of Gorky in organizational work on the magazine 'collective farmer' almanac 'Year XVI', 'Year XVII' and 'Friendship of Peoples'. In mid-1930's he worked on his novel "The East" (Originally. name "Destiny War"), conceived as an epic work of the socialist development of the Far East, where the projected geopolitical military cataclysms, in which China, India and Indonesia stand under the banner of world revolution. Looseness of the composition and sketchiness images did not prevent the Soviet public were enthusiastic about this militant internationalist utopia (publ. in 1936-1937), inspiring to the same idea of continuing the victorious Red Army and the absolute priority 'general' affairs over personal destiny. Successful steel and dramatic experiments Pavlenko - the script of one of the cult Soviet film "Alexander Nevsky" (1938; Joint. with dir. SM Eisenstein, USSR State Prize, 1941).

As a journalist involved in the Finnish campaign, in acceding to the Soviet Union in Western Ukraine, during the Great Patriotic War - the war correspondent of newspapers 'true' and 'Red Star'. Discharged in connection with the injury and the exacerbation of long-standing tuberculosis, in 1945 moved to the Crimea, where he worked on a novel about a man, a war-torn - "Happiness" (1947; State Prize, 1948). Unlike the heroes K. Simonov and BN Field, . committing a high military feat, . not devoid of autobiographical character traits Pavlenko, . Colonel Voropaev, . arrived on the Crimean coast for treatment, . proves his courage everyday to counter the destructive consequences of war, . the overcoming of adversity through the understanding of total victory and his involvement in the 'right' turn of history,
. Strictly following the canons of socialist realism, . evolved in the late 1940's to the side 'varnishing reality "and the unbridled cult of personality was, . novel creates a situation, . images and metaphors are obvious aesthetic tastelessness, . At the same time bribing naive optimism, . lifelike accuracy of many specific drawings, . characteristic Pavlenkovskaya humor,
. In the same vein created screenplays 'iconic' films climax cult of personality "The Oath" (1946, USSR State Prize, Prize of the USSR, 1947) and "The Fall of Berlin" (1949, USSR State Prize, 1950, dir. Both films M. E. Chiaureli)

. In 1949-1951 the writer was actively involved in social and political life of the country as a member of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the secretary of the Crimean Writers' Organization, . often manifesting as such, dogmatism and intolerance, . However, there is evidence to support the local intellectuals, founded and edited the anthology 'of Crimea', since 1947 member of the editorial board of 'Banner',
. Was a party to international conferences, published in the wake of which matured in official spirit of the Cold War 'book "American Impressions" (1949), "Young Germany", "Italian experience" (both 1951). This created at the same time stories of "Daybreak," "Voice of the road", "Autumn Dawn", "Night at the Gelati" story "Steppe sun" (all 1949) marked the author's warm feelings for the romantic spirit, written in clear and concise language. Incomplete left 'international communist novel' about the life of the Soviet state with the prewar years and the communist movement in various countries of the world (completed only Part 1 - "Workers of the World", published. in 1952, the builder of Fergana Canal).

Implicitly apprehended myths and dogmas of his time, Pavlenko revealed a characteristic of the Stalinist era type of writer-functionary, which was considered the supreme duty of loyalty to the government as a sign of dedication to the public good.

Pavlenko died in Moscow on 16 June 1951.

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