Richard I the Lionheart English( Richard was the second son of Henry Plantagenet. He is not seen as a direct heir of his father, and it left a definite imprint on his character and the events of his youth. While it with)
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Biography Richard I the Lionheart English
Thereafter, until his coronation future king visited England only twice - at Easter in 1176, Mr.. and at Christmas in 1184, Mr.. His reign in Aquitaine was held in constant clashes with the local barons who are accustomed to independence. Soon added to the internal wars of the collision with the father. At the beginning of 1183 g. He ordered Richard to bring fief oath to his elder brother Henry. Richard refused to do so, citing the fact that it was unheard of innovation. Henry Jr. entered Acqui-taniyu led a mercenary army, began to ravage the country, but in the summer of that year, suddenly fell ill with fever and died. The death of his elder brother did not put an end to quarrels between father and son. In September, Henry ordered Richard to pay Aquitaine to his younger brother John.
Richard refused, and the war continued. Younger brothers Gottfried and John attacked the Poitou. Richard responded to this invasion of Brittany. Seeing that the force did not achieve, the king ordered to transfer the disputed dukedom mother. At this time, Richard obeyed. But while father and son were reconciled, trust between them was not. In particular seemed suspicious intimacy established between the king and his youngest son John. There were rumors that it was his Henry, contrary to all traditions, wants to make his heir, to the exclusion from the throne of the rebellious eldest sons. This made the relationship between father and Richard even more strained. Henry was a man tough and autocratic, Richard could have expected from him every dirty trick. The French king was not slow to take advantage of strife in the English royal house. In 1187, Mr.. He showed Richard's secret letter to the King of England, where Henry asked Philip to give John his sister Alice (already betrothed to Richard above) and submit the same to John Akvitans-something and the duchy of Anjou. Richard felt throughout the danger to themselves. In the family of Plantagenet has come to a head a new gap. But openly against his father Richard made until the autumn of 1188, Mr.. Contrary to his will, he became reconciled to Bonmulene with the French king and brought him a fief oath. The following year, they captured two of Maine and. Touraine. Henry led against Richard and Philip's war, but without much success. A few months from it eliminated all continental possessions, except
Normandy. By Henry Lehmann barely escaped being taken prisoner by his son. In July 1189, Mr.. he had to accept humiliating conditions, dictated by his enemies, and died shortly thereafter. In August, Richard arrived in England on September 3 and was crowned in Westminster Abbey. Like his father, spending most of the time is not on the island, and in his continental dominions, he was not going to stay in England for a long time. After the coronation, he had lived in their country only four months, and then again dropped in here for two months in 1194
Having taken power, Richard began to work on the organization of the Third Crusade, vow to take part in which he gave more in 1187, Mr.. He took into account the sad experience of the Second hike and insisted that to achieve the Holy Land was elected to the sea route. This saved kres'tonostsev many hardships and unpleasant confrontations with the Byzantine emperor. The campaign began in the spring of 1190, when the mass of pilgrims marched through France and Burgundy to the shores of the Mediterranean. In early July, Richard Wesel met with Philip Augustus. Kings and troops greeted each other and continued to march south together with joyful songs. From Lyon, the French turned to Genoa, and Richard moved to Marseille. Sitting here on the ships, the British sailed to the east and 23 September were already in Messina. Here: King was arrested by enemy action of the local population. Sicilians are very unfriendly attitude towards the English Crusaders, among whom were many Normans. They not only showered them with jeers and insults, but at every opportunity tried to kill unarmed pilgrims. Oct. 3 because of the insignificant clashes in the city market has started a real war. Citizens hastily armed, locked the gate and took the place of the towers and walls. In response, the British, not long thinking, stormed. Richard, as he could, trying to keep his people from ruin Christian town. But the next day during the peace talks townspeople suddenly made a daring raid. Then the king became the head of his troops, drove their enemies back to the city, seized the gates and made a severe trial of the vanquished. Until the evening in the city of rampant looting, killings and violence against women. Finally, Richard managed to restore order.
Because of the lateness of the hour to continue the campaign was postponed until next year. This delay of many months of very badly-affected relations between the two monarchs: Every now and then between them there were minor clashes, and if the fall of 1190, Mr.. They arrived in Sicily, intimate friends, in the spring of next year, left it almost outright enemies. Philip went straight to Syria, and Richard made a forced stop in Cyprus. It so happened that because of the storm of the British ships were washed ashore to the island. Cyprus law Emperor Isaac Komnenos possessed by them under the right shore. But on May 6 in the harbor of Limassol entered the entire fleet of Crusaders. The King asked Isaac to meet, and when he refused, immediately attacked him. Galleys crusaders approached the shore, and began gathering of knights battle. Richard, along with other boldly jumped into the water, and then the first entered on an enemy shore. The battle, however, did not last long - the Greeks did not stand the shock and retreated. The next day the battle resumed already outside Limassol, but was just unfortunate for the Greeks. As before, Richard was ahead of the attackers, and more than all his distinguished valor. They write that he had seized the banner of Isaac, and even blow knocked the spear from the horse of the emperor. May 12 in the city was conquered with great pomp celebrated the wedding of King with Berengaria. Isaac yet realized their mistakes and tied with Richard talks. Conditions of reconciliation were to him very hard: in addition to a large ransom, Isaac had to open up all its crusaders fortress and set to participate in the crusade auxiliaries. With all this, Richard has not made an attempt on his authority - the emperor himself gave rise to the fact that events have for him the worst traffic. After all the things seemed to be settled, Isaac suddenly fled to Famagusta and accused Richard that he infringed on his life. The enraged king announced Komnina perjurer, disturbers of the peace, and authorized its navy to guard the coast, that he did not run away. The very first thing he conquered Famagusta and then moved to Nicosia. Towards a Tremifussii once the battle. Having gained a third victory, Richard triumphantly entered the capital. Here he briefly was detained disease. Meanwhile, the Crusaders, led by the King of Jerusalem Guido, took the strongest castles in the mountains of Cyprus. Among other prisoners had been captured by the only daughter of Isaac. Broken all these setbacks, the emperor surrendered to the winners on May 31. The only condition of the deposed monarch had been requested not to burden him with iron chains. But that his fate was not easy, because Richard told him put him in silver chains and sent to a Syrian castles. Thus, as a result of a successful 25-day war, Richard became the owner of a rich and flourishing island. He left half of the inhabitants of their property, and the other half used the county for education to knighthood, which was to assume the defense of the country. By adding in all the towns and castles of their garrisons, June 5, he sailed for Syria. Three days later he was already in the Christian camp under the walls of besieged Akkona.
With the arrival of the British siege of the boil with new vigor. In a short time were built the tower, battering rams and catapults. Under protective roofs and dig through the Crusaders approached the fortifications of the enemy's most. Soon, nearly punched holes everywhere on fire fighting. The situation became hopeless citizens, and 11 July, they entered into negotiations for the surrender of the city with the Christian kings. Muslims should have to promise that the Sultan sent away all the Christian prisoners and return the life-giving Cross. Garrison had a right to return to Saladin, but part of it, including one hundred and noble people, were to be held hostage until the Sultan of the Christians did not pay 200 thousand gold pieces. The next day, the Crusaders triumphantly entered the city, which was besieged for two years. The joy of victory, however, was marred by strong contention that immediately broke out between the marshals of the Crusaders. The dispute arose because of the candidacy of Jerusalem King. Richard thought that they should remain Guido Lusignan. But many Palestinian Christians could not forgive him for the fall of Jerusalem and the preference for the hero of Defense Tire Margrave Conrad, Marquess of Montferrat. Philip Augustus was also entirely on his side. At this feud superimposed another scandal associated with the Austrian flag. As can be inferred from the conflicting news about the incident, shortly after the fall of the Austrian Duke Leopold ordered to raise his home above the Austrian standard of. Seeing this flag, Richard flew into a rage, commanded-to frustrate him, and throw in the dirt. His anger was caused, apparently, the fact that Leopold took a house in the English part of the city, while he was an ally of Philip. But be that as it may, this case aroused the indignation of all the Crusaders, and on it a long time could not forget. In late July, Philip, as well as many French pilgrims left the Holy Land and went back.
This has weakened the forces of the Crusaders, while the most difficult part of the war - for the return of Jerusalem - has not yet started. However, with the departure of Philip were to calm down the internal dissensions among the Christians, as Richard now remained the sole leader crusading army. But it was not clear whether this is a difficult role to him on the shoulder. Many considered him a man's wayward and irrepressible, and he himself first as their orders confirmed this unfavorable opinion of himself. Sultan could not so soon, as it must, to fulfill the conditions that it imposed a surrender Akkona: release all prisoners of Christians and to pay 200 thousand gold pieces. Richard came out of this, in the immense anger, and immediately after the deadline passed vygovorenny Saladin - August 20 - ordered to withdraw and stab at the gates Akkona over 2 thousands of Muslim hostages. Of course, after the money was not paid at all, not one prisoner has not received Christian liberty, and True Cross remained in the hands of Muslims: Three days after the massacre, Richard stepped out Akkona led a large number of Crusaders. The aim of the campaign this time was elected Ashkelon. Saladin tried to block the road. September 7 at Arzufa a fierce battle, which ended in the brilliant victory of Christians. Richard was in the thick of battle and his spear contributed much to the success of. A few days later the Pilgrims arrived in the ruined Joppa and stopped here to rest. Saladin took advantage of the delay in order to completely destroy Ascalon, which he now had no hope to hold. The news of this has upset all the plans of the Crusaders. Some of them began to recover Joppa, others took the ruins of Ramle and Lydda. Richard himself has participated in many skirmishes, and often needlessly risked the lives of. At the same time between him and Saladin began a heated negotiation, which, however, did not lead to any results. In winter 1192, Mr.. King announced a hike in Jerusalem. However, the Crusaders have come only to Beytnuba. They had to turn back because of the rumors about the strong fortifications around the Holy City. In the end, returned to the original purpose and in a strong a storm - through the storm and rain - moved to Ashkelon. This, quite recently flourishing and wealthy city, appeared before the eyes of pilgrims in a deserted heap of stones. Crusaders zealously embarked on its recovery. Richard encouraged workers monetary gifts and to show everyone a good example, he dragged on his shoulders stones. Of the terrible debris with extraordinary rapidity were erected walls, towers and houses. In May, Richard stormed Daruma - a strong fortress to the south of Ashkelon;. After that, it was decided to again move to Jerusalem. But, like the last time the Crusaders arrived just before Beytnuba. Here the army halted for a few weeks. Between the leaders began a campaign heated debate about how useful or not to proceed now to the siege of such a powerful fortress, or better to move to Damascus, or in Egypt. Because of differences march had to be postponed. Pilgrims began to leave Palestine. In August came the news of the attack Saladin at Joppa. With lightning speed, Richard gathered the remains to the military forces at hand, swam in Joppa. In the harbor, ahead of his people, he jumped from the ship into the water to reach the shore without delay. This was not only saved the citadel, but again repulsed the enemy's city. After several days of Saladin tried again with the superior forces to seize and crush a small detachment of the King. Under Joppa, and the city itself there was a battle whose outcome hesitated then the one side or the other. Richard proved himself not only strong, brave and persistent, Noah reasonable commander, so that not only retained their positions, but also caused the enemy heavy losses. Victory that allowed to start negotiations. From England came the bad news of the autocratic actions of the younger brother of King John of England. Richard with restless haste sought home, and this prompted him to make concessions. Under a contract signed in September, Jerusalem remained at the mercy of the Muslims, the Holy Cross would not
l issued, prisoners, Christians were given their plight in the hands of Saladin, Ekron was supposed to be quite pregnant workers from both sides. Such an outcome is a campaign filled the hearts of Christians with grief and rage, but there was nothing.
After the conclusion of a treaty with Saladin, Richard spent several weeks in Akkone in early October, sailed home. This trip represented by the great difficulty. In a sea route around Europe, which he obviously wanted to avoid, almost all other roads were closed to him. The Emperor and the people of Germany were largely hostile to Richard. A frank's enemy was the Duke of Austria Leopolad. Germanic Emperor Henry VI was an opponent of Richard because of the close relationship with the King of England Guelphs and the Normans, the main enemies of Hohenstaufen. However, despite this, Richard decided to sail up the Adriatic Sea, apparently intending to go through southern Germany in Saxony under the protection of Welf. Near the coast between Aquileia and Venice, his ship ran aground. Richard went to the sea with a few escort and in disguise, went through Friaul and Carinthia. Soon, his movement became known Duke Leopold. Many moons Richard were captured, with one servant, he reached the village Erdberga near Vienna. The sleek look of his servants, and foreign money, which he made the purchase, attracted the attention of local residents. December 21, Richard was captured and imprisoned in the castle Dц?renstein.
As soon as the news of the arrest of Richard reached the emperor, he immediately demanded his extradition. Leopold agreed after he promised to pay 50 thousand marks of silver. After that, more than a year had become a prisoner of the English king Henry. He bought his freedom only after it brought fief oath to the emperor and promised to pay a ransom of 150 thousand marks of silver. In February 1194, Mr.. Richard was released, and in mid-March, landed on the English coast. Supporters of John did not dare to oppose him, and soon lay down their arms. London met his king Lavish. But two months later he had ever left England and sailed to Normandy. In Lizo confronted by the John misconduct which in the absence of his elder brother bordered on outright betrayal. Richard, however, forgave him all crimes.
In the absence of King Philip II had some dominance over the British on the continent. Richard hastened to correct the situation. He took Losch, one of the main fortresses Touraine, possessed Angouleme and forced into submission hardened rebel Earl of Angouleme. The following year, Richard moved to the Berry and worked here so well that led Philip to sign a peace. The French had to abandon the eastern Normandy, but retained several important castles on the Seine. An agreement could not be durable. In 1198, Mr.. Richard returned the border Norman possessions, and then went up to the castle being naughty-Chabrol in the Limousin, whose owner was convicted of a secret connection with the French king. March 26, 1199, Mr.. after dinner, at dusk, Richard went to the castle without the lat, protected only helmet. During the battle crossbow arrow pierced the king deep in the shoulder, next to the cervical spine. Not submitting the form that he was wounded, Richard rode to his camp. No important body was hurt, but as a result of an unsuccessful operation began septicemia. Aching eleven days, the King died.