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Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich

( First President of Russia)

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Biography Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich
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Boris Yeltsin was born Feb. 1, 1931 in the village of Butka Talitsky district of Sverdlovsk region into a peasant family, Russian.

The Army did not serve because of the absence of two fingers on his left arm as a result of trauma: early childhood, in Berezniki, he stole a military warehouse, two grenades, one of which blew up badly.

In 1949, after leaving school he entered the Civil Engineering Department of the Ural Polytechnic Institute, Kirov in Sverdlovsk, who graduated in 1955. Theme thesis - "Television Tower".

In 1961 he joined the Communist Party. On his views of that time thought of this: "I sincerely believe in the ideals of justice, which is the party, also joined the party sincerely and carefully examined, and the ordinance and program, and the classics, read the works of Lenin, Marx and Engels".

In 1968 he was transferred to the economic work of professional party - led by the construction department of the Sverdlovsk Regional Party. In 1975 at the plenary session of the Sverdlovsk Regional Party Committee, was elected the secretary, responsible for industrial development area.

In 1976 he received a referral for monthly rates in Moscow at the Academy of Social Sciences (AON) at the CPSU Central Committee. Two weeks later, was summoned for an interview at the CPSU Central Committee, which learned of the decision to recommend him for the post of first secretary of the Sverdlovsk Regional Party Committee. The formal election was held on November 2, 1976. Shortly thereafter was elected to the Sverdlovsk Regional Council - by Serov constituency (g.Severouralsk).

In the Yeltsin years in Sverdlovsk was built luxury building for the Regional Committee of the CPSU, has received in the city the nickname "White Tooth" and "member of the CPSU,. The method of "people's construction, the road was laid from Sverdlovsk in Severouralsk. Performed reconstruction of old mines and factories (later turned out that the cumbersome import equipment ill-suited to work in close shops and mines of the nineteenth century).

On the night of 17 to 18 September 1977 on the orders of Yeltsin, was bulldozed stood in the center of Sverdlovsk Ipatief residence of the merchant, which in 1918 had been shot Nicholas II and his wife, children and servants. "To solve the issue of the demolition of the mansion in order of planned reconstruction of the city" was entrusted with the Sverdlovsk Regional Committee has closed Politburo decision of 30 July 1975, . but the former first secretary of the Sverdlovsk regional committee Yakov Ryabov some reason "the issue is not decided, and he inherited Yeltsin,
.

In 1978, the first time was elected to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Sun 9-th convocation 1974-79, then was elected in 1979 in the Sun the 10 th convocation, and in 1984 - 11 th convocation; from 1984 to 1985 and from 1986 to 1988 was a member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet).

In 1981 at the XXVI Congress of the CPSU was elected a member of the CPSU Central Committee.

After coming to power in March 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev, Yeltsin was invited to 3 April 1985 to lead the Construction Department of the CC CPSU. April 12, Yeltsin began to work in this post.

In June 1985, at the plenum of the CPSU Central Committee, Yeltsin received the post of secretary of the Communist Party of the construction.

December 22, 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev invited Yeltsin to head the Moscow party organization instead of Viktor Grishin. December 24th plenum of the Moscow City Committee (IGC) of the CPSU, . addressed by Gorbachev, . Grishina released from his responsibilities for "his own request in connection with his retirement, and unanimously elected the new first secretary of Yeltsin,
.
As First Secretary of the CIM Yeltsin began by saying that immediately replaced by his assistants, Bureau members and secretaries of CIM, as well as leadership Mossovet. This was followed by a permutation of personnel at the district level committees of the party, launched a campaign against corruption in the Moscow Trade. The new first secretary was surprised when many of the inhabitants of Moscow, availability, travel in public transport, sudden visits to stores, as well as the organization of the fall of 1986 fruit and vegetable fairs.

At the XXVII Congress of the CPSU in February 1986 statement by the 1 st Secretary of CIM was one of the most dramatic in relation to the period of "stagnation". Stating the applause that the party used "faulty methods of leadership," happening "regeneration of personnel," Yeltsin said: "Delegates may I ask: why is this not said, speaking at the XXVI Congress of the Party? Well. I can answer, and frankly answer: apparently, did not have the courage and political experience ". Held on the last day of Congress, 18 February 1986 Plenum of the CPSU, Yeltsin was elected a candidate member of Politburo

. October 21, 1987 at the plenum of the CPSU Central Committee, Yeltsin criticized the work of the Politburo and Central Committee Secretariat, . expressed dissatisfaction with the slow pace of change in society and kowtowing to the Secretary-General, . and asked to resign from the Politburo, . adding, . that the question of his resignation from his post as first secretary of the MGK decides City Committee,
. In response, Gorbachev accused Yeltsin of "political immaturity" and "absolute irresponsibility", . recommended plenum recognize speech Yeltsin "politically incorrect" and set at the plenum of the Party CIM question of his release from the post of Secretary,
. None of the Yeltsin supported.

November 11, 1987 at the plenum of CIM "beating" Yeltsin continued with even greater force. He was forced to admit the error of his speech and was removed from his post as first secretary of the CPSU MGK.

. In December 1987, Yeltsin was appointed to a minor and non-political post of first deputy chairman of the State Construction Committee of the USSR - Minister of the USSR (in his post until 1989)
. In the spring of 1988 at the Central Committee plenum, he was removed from the candidate members of the Politburo, but remained a member of the Central Committee.

In April-May 1988, Yeltsin had tried unsuccessfully to get a seat a delegate to the XIX-th party conference from Moscow and Sverdlovsk, and at the last moment he was elected a delegate from Karelia. At a conference in June 1988, . difficulty achieving the right to speak, . criticized the Communist Party of the backlog of adjustment processes in the country, . made for distribution of publicity on the inner life of the party, . proposed to introduce a general, . direct, . secret elections of party officials and raised questions about his own "political rehabilitation", . which remained unanswered,
.

In the elections of People's Deputies in March 1989 was offered a candidate for the biggest in the country of Moscow national-territorial district N1. The initiative of his nomination was born in the collective number of major defense industry enterprises in Moscow and Zelenograd (NIIstalkonstruktsiya, NGO "Cybernetics", etc.). In some companies, this initiative even found the support of local party committees.
In the election for Yeltsin 89,4% of voters voted for his opponent - the plant's director im.Lihacheva Eugene Brakova - only 6,9%.
On the I Congress of People's Deputies in May-June 1989, Yeltsin's candidacy was put forward by Gennady Burbulis to the presidency of the USSR Armed Forces as an alternative to Gorbachev, but Yeltsin, having recused himself, citing the party discipline. He was elected a member of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (originally gleaning votes; place in the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin gave Alexei Kazannik). In the Supreme Soviet, Yeltsin was elected chairman of the Committee for Construction and Architecture.

In July 1989, at the first general conference of the Inter-Regional Parliamentary Group (MDG) was elected as one of five co-chairs of the MDT, but active participation in its meetings did not take.

September 28, 1989 occurred the famous incident - "swimming in the river" (in fact - in the pond), which has remained outstanding. Newspapers democratic direction while actively developed version of the assassination attempt on the life of the Yeltsin. Yeltsin himself said then that the attack was not, but later in his memoirs claimed that the attack was not giving, the truth, without any explanation and without revealing the details. Two investigations (Interior Minister Vadim Bakatin and the USSR Supreme Soviet of the USSR under the chairmanship of the Commission on the Ethics Anatoly Denisov) did not confirm the story of the assassination. As later (on the eve of the presidential elections in 1991) argued Denisov, Yeltsin supposedly came to visit a friend, there is quarreling with her unnamed guest and as a result was in the water.

In March 1990 Yeltsin was elected a deputy of the RSFSR in Sverdlovsk in the block of candidates of the "Democratic Russia" (Yeltsin's confidant and de facto organizer of his campaign was Burbulis).

May 29, 1990 at the I Congress of People's Deputies, Yeltsin supported the bloc "Democratic Russia, was elected Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. Its main rival for the post was subsequently became the first secretary of the Communist Party of the RSFSR Ivan Polozkov. After two unsuccessful rounds of voting (in which Yeltsin was respectively 497 and 503 of the 531 votes needed for election) of the Communist Party fielded another candidate - chairman of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR Alexandra Vlasova. Before the deputies made Soviet President Gorbachev, vyskazavshiiysya against the election of Yeltsin. Then Yeltsin won in the first round of voting, by dialing 535 votes of deputies. In his speech after the election said that "Russia will be independent in all, and its decisions should be above the Union".

After becoming President of RSFSR Supreme Soviet, Yeltsin declared its withdrawal from the bloc "Democratic Russia".

June 16, 1990 decision of the I Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR was established Constitutional Commission, whose chairman was elected chairman of the Supreme Yeltsin, and Vice-Chairman - First Deputy. Chairman of the Supreme Khasbulatov, executive secretary - Oleg Rumyantsev.

. July 12, 1990 at the XXVIII Congress of the CPSU, Yeltsin quit the party, explaining his pace so that at the election to the presidency of the Supreme Council has promised to withdraw from all political parties and movements


. Trying to win over in the "war of sovereignties" of Russia and the Soviet leadership of some autonomous republics, . Yeltsin made in July-August 1990 visit to Tatarstan and Bashkortostan, . in the course of which was for the republics to take "as much sovereignty, . as they can digest,
. In a speech in Ufa, in August 1990 he submitted another appeal "to take that share of power, which they themselves can digest," accusations of the Federal Government that it intends to raise prices.

July 31, 1990 between Gorbachev and Yeltsin signed an agreement on cooperation in developing a program to reform the country. The result of this agreement was the appearance in late August, the economic reform program "500 days", developed by a team led by Grigory Yavlinsky and Stanislav Shatalina

. However, since mid-September 1990 under pressure from conservatives, Gorbachev began to depart from the August Agreements
. He said that the need to combine "the most valuable" from the program 500 days "and from the government program Nikolai Ryzhkov. Yeltsin spoke against the.

November 11, 1990, Gorbachev met with Yeltsin and the newly agreed on cooperation, but the union was again short-lived. The Supreme Soviet of the USSR did not support the program "500 days", . Gorbachev did not insist on it (as well as on the program Ryzhkov) and received from the Supreme Council the authority to perform the third, . new economic program, . implementation of which was entrusted formed in early January 1991 a new Cabinet headed by Valentin Pavlov,
.

In December 1990, the position of orthodox communists in the leadership of the Soviet Union intensified. Under their pressure, Gorbachev held senior positions in the future organizers of the attempted coup of August 19, 1991 - Gennady Yanayev, Valentin Pavlov, Boris Pugo. Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR appointed on March 17 referendum on the preservation of the USSR

. In January 1991,, . after the capture by Soviet troops of the Vilnius television station, . active intervention by Yeltsin in the development, . including, . his visit to Tallinn, . during which the agreements were signed with the Baltic republics, . helped prevent the overthrow of the national-democratic regimes in these republics,
.

At the initiative of the democratically-minded people's deputies of Russia was appointed a referendum on the introduction of the RSFSR post popularly elected president. The referendum was scheduled for one day with the All-Union referendum on the preservation of the USSR.

February 19, 1991, Yeltsin appeared on television with sharp criticism of government policy, demanding the resignation of Gorbachev and the transfer of power to the Federation Council composed of leaders of the Union Republics.

Held on 17 March 1991 referendum, the majority of Russia's population voted for the preservation of the USSR, but also for the introduction to the post of President of the RSFSR.

June 12, 1991 election of President Yeltsin of the RSFSR was running in a pair with Alexander Rutskoi and won the first round, beating Nikolai Ryzhkov, Vladimir Zhirinovsky, Aman Tuleyev, Albert Makashov and Vadim Bakatin. For Yeltsin, voted 45,552,041 people (57.30% voting, scheduling 42,78% of voters).

July 20, 1991 Yeltsin issued a decree on liquidation of Party organizations at state enterprises and institutions in Russia. The purpose of this measure was the elimination of party committees of the CPSU, controlled the administration of enterprises.

19-21 August 1991, Yeltsin led the fight against the coup attempt GKChP. All three days in the House of Soviets of the RSFSR, has issued several decrees, extending the powers of the President of the RSFSR in the management of the armed forces, internal affairs bodies, subordinated to the President of the RSFSR several Union ministries and departments. August 22, Yeltsin issued a decree suspended and then banned Communist Party.

After the failed coup attempt and return to Moscow, Soviet President Gorbachev, almost all appointments with the authorities of the USSR consistent with Yeltsin. In the first weeks after the coup was announced to transfer the jurisdiction of Russia many allied industrial and other ministries, as a rule - led by Federal Minister. Chairman of the Committee on the operational management of the economy of the USSR - in fact, a new federal government - has become Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR Ivan Silayev

. In September 1991, Yeltsin supported Gorbachev to transform the USSR into the Union of Sovereign States, and in October declared that "Russia will never will initiate the collapse of the Union".

. 6 November 1991, Yeltsin led the new government of Russia in his capacity as Chairman
. The first deputy of his - and the actual head of the "reform government" - has become Burbulis, who played a decisive role in shaping the economic block of the new government on the basis of a group of young economists headed by Yegor Gaidar.

December 7-8, 1991 in the Bialowieza Forest met the presidents of Russia and Ukraine and the President of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus, which resulted in the elimination of the Soviet Union and the proclamation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In the course of the Alma-Ata meeting of the heads of the Union Republics, held on 21 December, the number of founders of the CIS increased to 11. Decision on the ratification of the Belovezhskaya agreements and denunciation of the Union Treaty in 1922 was almost unanimously approved by the Supreme Council of Russia.

January 2, 1992 were released prices for most commodities. The jump in prices was faster than expected. Part of People's Deputies of Russia Federation (RF) expressed dissatisfaction with the results of the first month of reforms.

January 14, 1992 demanding the resignation of the government Burbulis-Gaidar made Khasbulatov. A similar position was taken by Vice President Rutskoi.

At the end of January 1992, Yeltsin made his initiatives on disarmament and stated that henceforth the weapons of the former Soviet Union will not be aimed at U.S. cities. This statement has become one of the main issues discussed during Yeltsin's visit to the United States, Canada, France (30 January - 8 February). February 2, 1992 at a meeting in Camp David (Washington), the presidents of Russia and the U.S. announced the beginning of a qualitatively new stage in relations between the two countries.

March 16, 1992 signed a decree on the establishment of the Ministry of Defense of Russia. Acting Minister of Defense became Yeltsin himself (7 May for the post he was appointed General Pavel Grachev).

April 3, 1992 by decision of Yeltsin Burbulis was relieved from his post as first vice-premier of the Government. The actual head of government was the first vice-premier Gaidar (formally, the Acting Chairman of the Council of Ministers, he was appointed in July 1992).

6.12 in April 1992 worked VI Congress of People's Deputies of Russia. It happened the first serious clash of Parliament with the Government. April 13 cabinet ministers resigned, which, however, the President did not accept. Yeltsin, speaking on the final day of the congress, called on parliamentarians to the early elimination of the differences between the executive and legislative branches of government and ensured that he will do everything possible. Trying to reach a compromise with the parliament, Yeltsin announced his disagreement with the demand of the protesters of the Movement of Democratic Russia "(April 19) about the crackdown Congress.

In mid-May 1992 scandal around MPs in speech. Isakov, who accused Yeltsin of abusing alcohol. The President emphatically denied the allegations.

May 27, 1992 in an interview with Komsomolskaya Pravda "Yeltsin first announced the need to introduce direct presidential rule the country.

In early September 1992, Yeltsin canceled the planned visit to Japan, because Japan's intransigence on the "northern territories".
September 6, 1992 at the extraordinary session of the Supreme Council of Russia, Yeltsin criticized the government for the first time for miscalculations and mistakes in economic policy. In particular, he expressed dissatisfaction with some members of the government - Aven, Andrei Nechaev, Alexander Titkina. Yeltsin urged parliamentarians to consolidation and cooperation to accelerate the reform process.

During a trip to Astrakhan in the beginning of November 1992 stated that "the revenge-seeking forces" fail "at the Congress victory, topple the government and away from President Gaidar". In a similar statement he made at a meeting with representatives of the Civic Union, "November 5, 1992.

December 1, 1992 in Moscow opened VII Congress of People's Deputies of Russia. On the eve of Congress, Yeltsin made one more attempt to reach a compromise with the Parliament by the removal of ministerial posts, most sharply criticized MPs. In November, the post of vice-premier and minister of the press was withdrawn Mikhail Poltoranin, the post of secretary of state has been eliminated, who served Burbulis (the latter was appointed head of group of advisers of the President). The leaders of democratic organizations, Yeltsin reiterated that Gaidar will not give up ".

On the first day of the Congress president expressed concern about "the painful relationship of AC with the Government". Among the extraordinary measures to stabilize the political situation in the country, Yeltsin called the clear distinction between legislative and executive authorities, strict compliance with the Federal Treaty, the adoption of new Constitution. Congress recognized the work of the government Gaidar unsatisfactory. Since anti-government speech by Vice President Rutskoi.
Yeltsin proposed to the Congress a compromise solution under which the appointment of three "power ministers" would require coordination with candidates for the Supreme Council. This president had hoped to get approval from MPs Gaidar as prime minister, but on Dec. 9, 1992 Congress rejected his candidacy, and adopted several amendments to the Constitution limiting the powers of the President

. 10 December 1992, Yeltsin addressed the Congress with an appeal to fellow citizens, . in which he declared the impossibility of further cooperation with the Congress of People's Deputies and the Speaker Khasbulatov and announced the appointment of a national referendum in January 1993 on the question: "Who do you trust the country out of economic and political crisis, . revival of Russia - the current composition of Congress and the AC or the President of Russia? ",
. Yeltsin invited its supporters to leave the courtroom, hoping that the Congress will be deprived of a quorum. However, this did not happen: in the hall were more than 2 / 3 MPs. Many MPs viewed the President's actions as a coup attempt.

11-12 December 1992 in the course of negotiations mediated by the Constitutional Court an agreement was signed between the Congress and the President. Yeltsin accepted the resignation of Mr Gaidar (Prime Minister instead of Gaidar, Viktor Chernomyrdin became). It was confirmed by the expiry of the additional powers of the President of Russia for economic reform. In April 1993 he was appointed a referendum on the main provisions of the new Constitution, and Congress adopted amendments to the Constitution, relating to the powers of the President, frozen before the referendum.

In March 1993, Boris Yeltsin's relations with the members of the newly exacerbated. March 3, 1993 at a meeting with representatives of political parties and movements that were part of a coalition "Democratic Choice," Yeltsin said: "I have not sworn allegiance to the Constitution Amendment VI and VII of Congresses". March 7, 1993 he sent a п?C your draft questions for the referendum (a presidential republic, bicameral parliament, the mechanism of the Constitution by the Constitutional Meeting, the right of private ownership of land).
9 March meeting of the Council of Heads of Republics of Russia, he said he was ready to compromise: his rejection of the referendum in return for a new constitutional agreement, extending the powers of the President.

March 10, 1993 at the VIII Congress of People's Deputies of Russia Nikolay Ryabov, in its report stressed that the President violated the agreement, adopted December 12, 1992, and again extended its authority by Congress ". On the same day Khasbulatov said that "the agreement on December 12" was a political mistake and demanded the resignation of Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and chairman of the State Property Committee Anatoly Chubais. Congress adopted a resolution completely disavows the December agreement.

March 20, 1993, Yeltsin made a televised address to the nation, which reported on a signed decree on special order of governance (OPUS) to overcome the constitutional crisis. The President appointed on April 25 a referendum of confidence in the president and vice-president, . draft a new constitution and a new Law on Elections of the new federal Parliament, . declared null and void all decisions of the Congress of AC or, . to repeal or suspension of his decrees,


. March 21 shortly after midnight, took a television address by the Vice-President Rutskoi, . Chairman of the Constitutional Court Valery Zorkin and the Attorney General Valentin Stepankov, . in which they condemned the decision of the President of Russia, . describing them as unconstitutional,
. Khasbulatov termed Yeltsin's actions as an attempted coup. Was urgently convened the Supreme Council, was scheduled for March 26 convening IX Congress of People's Deputies.

March 25, 1993 was published significantly altered presidential decree on holding a national referendum on April 25 - there was no mention of "special order of governance".

At the IX Congress of the President again subjected to severe criticism. March 28, 1993 Khasbulatov presented to the Congress a draft resolution on holding early simultaneous elections of the President and Congress, as agreed during the night at a meeting Khasbulatov and Yeltsin. Representatives of a majority of parliamentary factions condemned the action Khasbulatova "behind Congress' rejection of its proposal and raised the question of impeachment against the President and the resignation of Khasbulatova. As a result of the vote, both remained at their posts. In voting for the impeachment of the President from office "for" votes with 617 deputies (for the removal did not have 72 votes)

. Congress decided to hold an April 25 national referendum on confidence in President RF, . the approval of the socio-economic policies of the President and the Government of Russia; of calling early elections of the President of Russia and calling early elections of People's Deputies of Russia,
.

"Democratic Russia" urged the people to express "yes" on all issues except for the third referendum - on the early election of the President (formula "yes-no-yes"). Yeltsin himself appealed to voters to four "yes".

April 25, 1993 a referendum was held. More than 50 percent of voters expressed confidence in the President and the socio-economic policy of the Government. This result, Yeltsin, in his statement immediately after the referendum interpreted as meaning that "the policy of reform is now under the protection of the people". For early elections and parliament and the president also spoke of more than 50% of the votes, . but a positive decision on these matters was not counted, . as having a constitutional nature "and, . hence requiring no more than 50% of voters, . and the total number of voters.,

. Even before the April referendum, vice president Rutskoi made in the Supreme Council, and accused members of the government, and especially Vladimir Shumeyko and Anatoly Chubais, of corruption and connivance of mafia structures
. Shortly thereafter, Rutskoi was relieved of all orders, including the leadership of the Interdepartmental Commission for the fight against crime and corruption. The new composition of the commission in August 1993, filed charges of corruption against the very Rutskoi.

September 2, 1993, Yeltsin signed a decree on suspension and Rutskoi and Shumeyko from the performance of their duties to verify the charges against them.

In September 1993, Yeltsin was re-appointed Gaidar's first Deputy Prime Minister and Acting Minister of Economy.

September 21, 1993 the President signed Decree N 1400 "On the phase-out constitutional reform". The decree, Yeltsin dissolved the Congress of People's Deputies and the Supreme Council and appointed on 12 December 1993 elections for a new representative body - the Federal Assembly. In the original text of the new provisions of the federal government provided, . that the upper chamber of the Federal Assembly - the Federation Council - will be formed from the heads of executive and representative authorities of Russia's 89 regions,
. According to the Decree N 1400, the Constitution of Russia in part, contrary to the text of the Decree, "terminated".
Several days later, Yeltsin issued a decree to hold a June 12, 1994 Presidential elections, as well as the appointment of 12 December 1993 referendum on a new constitution - simultaneously with elections to the Federal Assembly

. His actions provoked opposition from parliamentarians, who announced Sept. 23, 1993 Yeltsin presidential powers terminated in accordance with Article 121-6 of the Constitution, and entrust the execution of duties of the President of Russia Rutskoi
. The validity of this decision the Constitutional Court confirmed.

The standoff lasted about two and a half weeks. October 3, 1993 at the call Rutskoi supporters of Parliament, receive weapons, stormed the building of the Moscow mayor's office, and then unsuccessfully attempted to seize the building in the Ostankino television center. TV shows from the Ostankino were terminated his leadership, and the attackers Ostankino crowd was dispersed by machine-gun fire from a large number of victims. The President introduced in Moscow on a state of emergency, which lasted 2 weeks. On the morning of October 4, 1993 in Moscow were put troops loyal to Yeltsin, who in the same evening, after the tank attack, stormed the parliament building and the arrested Rutskoi Khasbulatov and other leaders of parliamentary resistance.

By presidential decree all organizations that participated in armed rebellion, and opposition publications have been banned for a period of emergency. Later, Yeltsin began the dissolution of the Soviets at all levels.

6 October 1993, Yeltsin issued a decree suspended the RF Constitutional Court.

The dissolution of Parliament was condemned by the majority of council chairman, a number of leaders of the republics of Russia and several heads of regional administrations of the Federation. In these circumstances, Yeltsin rejected the idea of automatic formation of the upper chamber of parliament and has appointed direct elections to the Federation Council. Scheduled for October 9 meeting of the Federation Council in the old part was lifted.

12 December 1993 State Duma elections the opposition actually won. A relative majority (23 percent) received on the party lists of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR) Vladimir Zhirinovsky. Third place was the Communist Party of Russia (KPRF) Gennady Zyuganov - 12.4%. Electoral Bloc Democratic-eltsinistov - "Choice of Russia Yegor Gaidar took second place, . received 15, . 51% - considerably less, . than expected, . and another pro-presidential list - Rossiyskogo centrist Party of Unity and Accord (PRES) Sergei Shakhrai difficult to overcome the 5-percent barrier,
.

Simultaneously with the election a referendum on the Constitution, under which the president received virtually unlimited power, and both houses of parliament are likely zakonosoveschatelnymi, rather than legislatures. As Yeltsin's decree a new constitution shall be considered adopted, . if it has received more than half of the votes, . whereas the existing law on the referendum demanded decision, . associated with the change of the Constitution, . majority of the personnel on the list of voters,
. Therefore, the decree said no on the referendum, but the "popular vote". With this change of rules, as well as the support of the supporters of Zhirinovsky, the Constitution was adopted

. In late November 1994, Yeltsin authorized the attempt to overthrow the separatist regime of General Dudayev's Chechnya, . which is easily defined since the autumn of 1991, . continuing - and, . before independence - to receive from the federal government oil and money,
.

June 14, 1995 a detachment of Chechen fighters led by Shamil Basayev, made a sortie on Russia's territory, seizing a hospital and the hostages in g.Budennovske Stavropol Territory. After unsuccessful for government forces stormed the hospital, . resulted in the deaths of the hostages, . Prime Minister Chernomyrdin held telephone talks with Basayev, . in which the hostages were freed, . and the militants were able to freely leave,
.

9 January 1996 Chechen rebels led by Salman Raduyev captured the city maternity Kizlyar in Dagestan, seizing more than 2 thousand hostages. Releasing militants from Kizlyar in exchange for the release of hostages, . Russia troops, . led by the head of the Federal Security Service MI Barsukov, . blocked them on 10 January in the village of Pervomaisky on the border with Chechnya, . then as a result of the assault three days (15-18 January) have s, . failing, . however, . capture Raduyev S.,
. In this part of the hostages died, while others were taken away breaking out terrorists on the territory of Chechnya.

In the first round June 16, 1996, Yeltsin received 26,664,890 votes, or 35.28% (Zyuganov - 32.04%), in the second round July 3 - 40,208,384 votes, or 53.82% (Zyuganov - 40.31 %), and thus became the President of Russia for a second term

. In the interval between two rounds, . trying to get votes of supporters of General Alexander Lebed (who won 3rd place - almost 14, . 5 per cent) and other outsiders first round, . Yeltsin appointed Lebed, Russia's Security Council Secretary and dismissed from their posts of Defense Minister P. Grachev, . first vice-premier Oleg Soskovets, . Chief of Presidential Security Service Alexander Korzhakov and FSB director Mikhail Barsukov,
.

Between the first and second round of elections, Yeltsin suffered serious ill health and was forced to cancel a number of meetings and visits. The official version of the repeal had problems with voice svzyakami, but the rumor went the most serious: from two heart attacks (27 and 28 June) to the alleged death from a heart attack at 4 am on July 1.

For information about what the president has serious heart problems, first leaked to the press in late 1995 - early 1996. In October 1995, Yeltsin may have suffered a myocardial infarction (according to lead researcher of the Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery named. Bakuleva, PhD Michael Alshibaya, who first publicly expressed the view that Yeltsin needed surgery. According Rinat Akchurin, cardio Vserossiiskogo cardiology center between the two rounds of elections - in late June 1996 - Yeltsin suffered several severe strokes. During the attacks carried out an intensive antithrombotic therapy. The result was the emergence of small strokes of cicatricial changes in the cardiac muscle. Most cardiologists, watching Yeltsin, but avoided using the term "myocardial infarction".

In September 1996, was officially recognized by the President of the disease (ischemic heart disease, exertional angina, kardiosklerosis, postgemorogicheskaya anemia and thyroid dysfunction). Yeltsin passed inspection council of physicians, after which it was announced that his forthcoming heart surgery

. September 19, 1996 was signed Decree N1378 "On temporary duty of the President of Russia", . according to which at the time of surgery on the heart of all of Yeltsin's presidential powers (including control over the "nuclear button") in full will be transferred to V. Chernomyrdin, after an additional decree, . which will be discussed, . with a day and hour of Chernomyrdin will concurrently vr.i.o,
. Presidential.

September 25, 1996, Yeltsin took a survey of another council of physicians, which was attended by 88-year-old cardiac surgeon Michael DeBakey operated in his time in Moscow, USSR President M. Keldysh. M. DeBakey first to use the apparatus of "artificial heart" and he created more than 70 surgical instruments. (2) The operation was deemed necessary and possible post-therapeutic procedures in the hospital for 6-8 weeks after the council of physicians,
. It was announced that the operation will meet the student DeBakey Akchurin. According to DeBakey, Yeltsin's mental activity can take place as usual - it can continue to work with documents and conduct working meetings, but the physical exertion it is absolutely contraindicated. Rehabilitation period, according to DeBakey, will take up to two months. According to DeBakey, 3 / 4 patients who underwent bypass surgery, after her active and maintain full availability

. October 17, 1996 President of Russia sent Alexander Lebed, retired from the post of Secretary of RF Security Council and Assistant for National Security Presidential, . announcing his decision live on TV and signed a decree on the removal of the Swan in front of viewers,
.

November 5, 1996 Akchurin carried out the operation "aorto-coronary bypass surgery". Before the operation, the President signed a decree on the transfer of their powers at the time of the operation Chernomyrdin. On the morning of 6 November, Prime Minister were exonerated i.o.prezidenta. It was announced that the operation was successful. Nevertheless, within a few months the president's health condition remained unstable and actually running the country in the hands of Chernomyrdin and Chubais. The President returned to active duty in mid-February 1997.

In March 1997, Yeltsin created the State Commission for the Year of concord and reconciliation, becoming its chairman. In March-April 1997 produced a reorganization of the government (in particular, reduced to two the number of first deputy prime ministers, which began Anatoly Chubais and Boris Nemtsov). Chairman of the Government remained Chernomyrdin

. July 14, 1998, Yeltsin met in the Kremlin with President of the State Duma and the leaders of Duma factions, . where in the course of the conversation has promised not to stand for election of the President of Russia in 2000, . saying at the same, . that he wishes, . that "Russia safely, . with the new president began to work ",
. Also stated that they have with them - "one team" and that he sees no reason to dissolve the Duma, as well advised to stop dealing with impeachment, which was promised by Duma members.

August 23, 1998 dismissed the government of Sergei Kiriyenko and appointed Chernomyrdin vr.i.o. Chairman of the RF Government. August 24, Yeltsin sent a letter to the State Duma with a proposal to consider the nomination of Chernomyrdin for appointment to the presidency of the RF Government. After the failure of Chernomyrdin in the State Duma again introduced his candidacy for prime minister. But after the second failure of Chernomyrdin suggested that the Duma to vote in favor of Yevgeny Primakov, who was approved by the Chairman of the RF Government 11 September 1998.

March 16, 1999, the Council of the State Duma appointed on April 15, 1999 to consider the impeachment of Yeltsin from office of President of Russia.

December 31, 1999, resigned from the post of President of Russia. I.o. President under the Constitution of Russia, Vladimir Putin became

. The first decree signed by Putin on Dec. 31, 1999 was a decree "On Guarantees for the President, ceased to exercise its powers, and members of his family, giving lifelong immunity to the former President of Russia.

. February 19, 2003, Mr.
. The State Duma has rejected in first reading and withdrew from further consideration of the bill, which proposed to deprive Yeltsin guaranteed to him by law, benefits and privileges

. 23 April 2007 at 15.45 Boris died suddenly of a heart attack.

. Awards of the first President of Russia

. Military rank - Colonel, who, being nevoennoobyazannym due to lack of finger, he was still a party work in Sverdlovsk
.

He was awarded the Soviet Order of Lenin (1981), Labor Red Banner (1971, 1974), two orders of Honor "(1966, 1981).

He was awarded Italy's highest state award - the Order of Knight Grand Cross.

He was awarded the Order of the Belarusian Skorina (2000).

Commander of the Order of Malta.

February 18, 2000 declined from the highest state awards of Latvia in connection with the prosecution of war veterans.

Family Yeltsin

Married

. Wife - Naina Iosifovna, before her marriage - Kirin (married in 1956), from a peasant family from 1955 to 1985 worked at the Sverdlovsk Institute Vodokanalproject engineer, senior engineer, chief engineer of the project, now in retirement
. Yeltsin met while studying at the Urals Polytechnic Institute.

Yeltsin couple have 2 daughters - Helen Okulova and Tatyana Dyachenko. Both married.

Grandchildren: Katya, Masha and Ivan (children Helena Okulova), Boris, Gleb and Mary (children of Tatyana Dyachenko).

On materials IC 'Panorama'

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User comments
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  • Incognito for Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich
  • He's dead, go to him and the road. I hope he burns in Hell! Led Russia into decadence. Ruined millions of lives. And how many people out for this ...., at the time were unable to get an education. I still can not oklimatsya after the rule E.B.N.
  • 50 for Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich
  • You stupid ass, "Incognito. You do not oklimatsya ... I found the cause of his dolboebizma ... be happy ... look for the following reasons, because of what you Nichrome can not in this life .... moron.
  • Vyacheslav for Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich
  • Slysh you're 50, you yourself are stupid ass. I agree with incognito. I have 2 Friends in Chechnya were killed because of this uebka. I am one of those who have not received higher education then took on his orders to the army. I get now, but I will say one thing now worse than it would be then. "Yes, and think pyanym speak to the camera but even in the presence of the presidents of other countries. It really is the biggest disgrace RUSSIA! In general, their own fault that allowed this asshole to power! Although I think everything was purchased. Personally, I do not know a single person, who at the time voted for him.
  • Kirill for Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich
  • Hmm ... I think the rules!
  • Dmitry for Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich
  • There are 2 strategies. strategy of penetration and withdrawal strategy cream. Maybe I'm wrong, but I think it is just vdannom event takes place snyatiyaslivok strategy, and Yeltsin, as would be bad about it is not spoken, laid the fundamentals of the market economy and state system of Russia. Governors are elected, democracy in the country and t n. Putin came to power, just took the cream, playing in the fall and got some effect.. We stopped to hear the criticism on TV, though there is criticism that the governors of the same .. now appoints the power budget .... party United Russia s08 to 09 years increased by 2,5 times .... and this is really good enough ...
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