TERESHKOVA Valentina( The world's first woman cosmonaut, Hero of the Soviet Union)
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Biography TERESHKOVA Valentina
Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova was born on March 6, 1937 in the village Maslennikovo Tutayev district of the Yaroslavl region in a family of collective farmers. His father worked as a tractor driver, his mother was engaged in housework, worked on the farm. During the Great Patriotic War, his father was killed at the front, and a mother with three children moved to the city of Yaroslavl. There little Valya went to school. She graduated from school seven years, and then night school for working youth. At the end of June 1954 came to work at the Yaroslavl Tire Plant in the assembly shop tailor.
In 1955 moved to Yaroslavl combine technical fabrics 'Red Perekop', where she worked brasletchitsey. In 1956 he entered the Yaroslavl Correspondence College of Light Industry. Besides working and studying in the college attended a local flying club, was engaged in parachuting, made 163 skydiving. She was awarded the first class of parachute jumping.
The Mill 'Red Perekop' joined the Komsomol, and in 1960 was elected secretary of the Komsomol organization of plant. In 1960 she graduated from the Yaroslavl Correspondence College of Light Industry. Free Secretary of the Komsomol committee Yaroslavl combine technical fabrics 'Red Perekop' worked until 1962, when it was credited to the detachment of Soviet cosmonaut (1962-A group of women astronauts N 1). Passed a full course of training for flight aboard Vostok-type.
16-19 June 1963 the first women in the world flew into space aboard the spacecraft Vostok 6. The flight suffered quite heavily, and it probably was one of the reasons that the next woman in space flight took place only after 19 years.
Mission duration was 2 days 22 hours 50 minutes. These seventy hours were a living hell for her. Almost all the time Valentine constantly nauseated and vomited. But she tried to keep - on the Earth were reports: "I -" The Seagull ". The flight is normal, ". Despite the physical discomfort, she endured 48 revolutions around the earth and all that time carried a logbook and made photographs of the horizon, which were later used to detect aerosol layers in the atmosphere.
. After the flight, Valentina rarely gave interviews
. Who knows, maybe that's why 71 per hour, which she spent in space, had grown a whole bunch of fairy tales.
- More than one dozen years I have kept secret, because I asked about Sergei Pavlovich Korolev - Tereshkova admitted in an interview on the eve of the 70 th anniversary. - The fact that the auto-ship program was made some not inaccuracy, but rather a mistake: it was oriented so that, instead of implementing a system of descent, its orbit, in contrast, rose. And I was flying instead of the Earth "there". This mistake in the very first day I noticed and reported to Sergei Pavlovich, and he and Yuri Gagarin had communicate with me.
Mistake quickly corrected. Having obtained the necessary data, Tereshkova laid them in the system of descent and landed safely. For the first time on this in 2004 in the designer and scientist Evgeny V. Shabarov. "Personally I was silent about this - smiles Valentina. - But Evhen decided to publish. So I can now calmly talk about it. "
Lander 'East-6' landed safely in the Altai region, but while catapulting Tereshkova hit her head on the helmet - landed with a tremendous bruise on his cheek and temple. Valentine was almost unconscious. It is urgently flown to a hospital in Moscow. Only by the evening lights of domestic medicine reported that the life and health of Tereshkova's out of danger.
The next day, immediately made staging newsreel footage for: Tereshkova was put into the apparatus, filmed extras, running to him. Then one of them opened the lid apparatus. Tereshkova was sitting inside, cheerful, smiling. These shots flew over the world.
After his flight, Tereshkova continued to be trained in the cosmonaut detachment, but most of the time she was engaged in public work. Tereshkova had to make many trips to the cities of the USSR, in many countries.
At the end of 1963 took her wedding with the astronaut Andriyan Grigorievich Nikolaev. In 1964, the 'space' family had a daughter - Helen.
Simultaneously with the work in the Cosmonaut Training Center, active in social activities and occupation, with a small daughter, Valentina Tereshkova was admitted to the Military Engineering Academy H. E. Zhukovsky, and graduated in 1969 with the specialty cosmonaut engineer. Actively engaged in the detachment astronauts until 1968, when the women's group was disbanded. However, continued to be enrolled in the unit astronauts until 1987, and in 1985 even considered the possibility of her re-flight in space.
Since 1968, has been working in the Soviet and later Russian, public organizations. In 1968 - 1987 years was chairman of the Committee of Soviet Women.
January 22, 1969 was in a car hit by an officer, Viktor Ilyin during the assassination attempt on Brezhnev. Not hurt.
In 1987 - 1992 years - Chairman of the Presidium of the Union of Soviet Societies for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries. In 1992 Russia was the chairman of the Presidium of the Association of International Cooperation. In 1992 - 1995 years - the first deputy chairman of Rossiyskogo Agency for International Cooperation and Development.
Since 1995 - Chairman of the Interagency Council on the coordination of Russian centers of science and culture abroad. Member of the Central Committee of the CPSU from 1971 to 1990. Member of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from 1966 to 1989. Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from 1974 to 1989. Vice-President of the International Democratic Federation of Women in 1969 - 1987 years. Served as a member of the World Peace Council, an honorary member of many organizations. PhD (1976). Major General Aviation.
April 30, 1997 Tereshkova left the squad last of the women's set in 1962 in connection with the age limit and resigned. Since 1997, she - Senior Researcher Cosmonaut Training Center. Lives in Star City Schelkovo district, Moscow region.
In 2007, President Vladimir Putin invited Tereshkova in Novo-Ogarevo, to congratulate its 70 th anniversary. During the conversation, Valentina Tereshkova said that before the start she had spoken with Korolev on future expeditions to Mars and that it is ready to fly there, even without the return.
. Since 2008 - Member of the Regional Duma of the Yaroslavl region of the United Russia party. "
. Five months after the flight - November 3, 1963 - Tereshkova surprise of many, was married to cosmonaut Andrian Nikolayev
. No one could grasp why this man became her husband. It was rumored that she was in love with Gagarin, but he was already married.
The only explanation for all this unexpected marriage for many is the fact that their betrothed Khrushchev himself. Pushed him to the medical scientists, who wanted to continue the research begun in the space of the human body during and after the flight. In addition, the head of state wanted to show the world what "correct" the Soviet people - and do what they need, and get married to who should. And indeed, this star pair was not anywhere in the world. Nikolaev at that time was the only one who stayed in space for the longest time - four days. He was the first who was allowed to get rid of the chair and go to "free floating". Besides, he was the only unmarried man in the team of astronauts.
True, there were also those who flatly denied the version of the marriage of Khrushchev. Third woman cosmonaut Elena Kondakova said: "Members of the first team were so privileged people that listen to them myself, Nikita Sergeyevich. And if Valentina said "no", no Central Committee could not make.
- Yes, Khrushchev was a zero, nothing he did not decide! - Said in an interview he Andrian Nikolayev. - He, on the contrary, we spoiled wedding. I wanted to hold it in the House of officers of the Moscow garrison, ordered a table for 300 seats, and Khrushchev had sent word that the wedding will be in the Reception Hall of the Government. And there could accommodate only 200 people. Hundreds of friends and relatives, we were asked to wait for us at Star City. And as soon as Khrushchev and his wife from a wedding party had left, we immediately ran to the Star.
A year later, Valentina, and Adrian had a daughter, Elena. There is a suggestion that the girl was born prematurely and deaf. Nevertheless, except for strabismus in childhood, no other external factors, pointing to her illness, no one noticed. But despite the birth of the child, having existed for several years, the marriage broke.
Divorce star pair shook many wedding no less. It must be said that this had to be hard on themselves - family quarrels in the detachment astronauts then dismantled numerous commissions. However, divorce is not for everyone was a surprise. When the family Tereshkova and Nikolayev was born, there were those who understood: it is not long. Good judge of people, General Nikolai Kamanin November 10, 1963 wrote in his diary: "Yesterday at the airport and Valya Andrian smiling and apparently were quite pleased with each other ... For politics and science of their marriage, perhaps, be useful, but I'm not sure that really loves Adrian Valea. Oh they are too different: it is - fire, and he - water. Both strong, strong-willed people, none of them do not voluntarily submit to another ... We found each other, as the most treasured in life. Akin to have common views on life, common work, common goals and, as said Valya, a river. We're both from the Volga River ... "And already in his second book" Cosmos - a road without end ", published in the 79-m, about Tereshkova - briefly and drily.
Their daughter Helen graduated with distinction from school, medical school. Now she is married, her growing son Alyosha, who tells everyone that his grandfather and grandmother were flying on a rocket. Neither the marriage of mother and father, nor of the subsequent divorce, his daughter says nothing. It is possible that all the nuances Tereshkova did not open it until now.
In the early 80's Valentina Tereshkova became acquainted with Julius Germanovich Shaposhnikov, presiding over the Central Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. Said that it was because of her previous family threw. Several years ago he died of cancer. "Humble and a hard worker," - so described him. Yes, and Valentina warmly about the second husband.
Unfortunately, to really close friends with the first female astronaut has left almost no. Her beloved younger brother Volodya, a cameraman who worked at the Star, a few years ago died. Long is dead and my mother. Very long searched for Valentina father's grave, who died on the Karelian Isthmus. Thanks to one of the marshals, the Defense Ministry, to provide funds for the overflight area, found a fraternal burial, forested. A monument, and regularly there.
Awards and titles
On June 16, 1963 - Astronaut Class 3.
1 bit for parachute jumping. June 19, 1963 - Honored Master of Sports of the USSR.
. Military rank
. December 15, 1962 - Lieutenant
. June 16, 1963 - Lt.
. June 16, 1963 - Captain
. January 9, 1965 - Major
. October 14, 1967 - Lieutenant Colonel
. April 30, 1970 - the colonel, then colonel-engineer
. May 5, 1995 - Major General (Presidential Decree? 458);
. On April 30, 1997 is retired.
. Awards Russia and the USSR
. - Hero of the Soviet Union (22 June 1963)
. - Order of Merit to the Fatherland 'II degree (March 6, 2007) - for outstanding contribution to the development of the domestic space
. - Order of Merit to the Fatherland 'III degree (March 6, 1997) - for services to the state and the great personal contribution to the development of the domestic space
. - Order of Honor (June 10, 2003) - for his great contribution to the development and strengthening of international scientific, cultural and social ties
. - Two of the Order of Lenin (22 June 1963 and May 6, 1981) - for the successful efforts to develop and strengthen ties with the progressive community and peace-loving forces of foreign countries (second)
. - Order of the October Revolution (1 December 1971)
. - Order of Red Banner of Labor (March 5, 1987) - for social activities
. - Order of Friendship of Peoples
. - Pilot-cosmonaut of the USSR
. - Users
. - State Prize of Russia for his outstanding achievements in the field of humanitarian activities in 2008 (June 4, 2009)
. - Diploma of the RF Government (16 June 2008, . June 12, 2003, . March 3, 1997) - for long-term fruitful public and social activities, . great personal contribution to the development of manned space flight and in connection with the 45-th anniversary of space flight for a great personal contribution to the development of manned space flight, for contributions to the development of space, . strengthening of international scientific and cultural ties and years of diligent work.,
. Foreign awards
. - Medal 'Gold Star' Hero of Socialist Labor Czechoslovakia (August 1963)
. - Medal 'Gold Star' Hero of Socialist Labor of Bulgaria and the Order of Georgi Dimitrov (9 September 1963)
. - Order of Karl Marx and the Medal Becker (October 1963, GDR)
. - Cross Grunwald I degree (October 1963, Poland)
. - I degree Order of Nepal (November 1963, Nepal)
. - Order of the Star of the Republic of Indonesia II degree (November 1963)
. - Order of the Volta (January 1964, Ghana)
. - Order of the State Banner of Hungary (April 1965)
. - Medal 'Golden Soyombo' Hero of Labor of the MPR and the Order of Sukhbaatar (May 1965, Mongolia)
. - Order of Enlightenment (August 1969, Afghanistan)
. - Order of Planets (December 1969, Jordan)
. - Order 'Necklace of the Nile' (January 1971, the United Arab Republic)
. - Medal 'Gold Star' Hero of Labor of Vietnam (October 1971)
. - Order O'Higensa and Gold Badge of the Air Force (March 1972, Chile)
. - Order of the Yugoslav Banner (November 1972)
. - Order 'for achievements in science' (17 November 1973, Romania)
. - Order of the Sun (1974, Peru)
. - Order of the Bay of Pigs and the Order of Anne Betancourt (1974, Cuba)
. - The medal "For Strengthening of brotherhood in arms' (1976, NRB)
. Awards scientific, social and religious organizations
. - Gold Medal
. K. E. Tsiolkovsky Academy of Sciences of the USSR
- Gold Medal of the British Interplanetary Society messages 'For achievements in space exploration' (February 1964, United Kingdom)
- Gold Medal 'Cosmos' (FAI)
- Prize Galambera Astronautical
- Gold Medal of Peace. Joliot-Curie (1964, France)
. - Order of the 'Rose of the Winds' International Committee for Aeronautics and Space Missions
. 'Golden mimosa' Italian Women's Union (1963)
. - Sign of the Komsomol Central Committee 'for active work in the Young Communist League' (1963)
. - Gold Medal VDNH (28 June 1963)
. - Badge of Honor DOSAAF Soviet Union (1 July 1963)
. - Order of the Euphrosyne, Grand Duchess of Moscow II degree (2008)
. Honorary Citizen
. Kaluga, . Yaroslavl (Russia), . Karaganda, . Baikonur (Leninsk) (1977) (Kazakhstan), . Gyumri (Leninakan) (1965) (Armenia), . Vitebsk (Belarus), . Montreux and Drancy (France), . Montgomery (United Kingdom), . Polizzi-Dzheneroza (Italy), . Darkhan (1965) (Mongolia), . Sofia, . Burgas, . Petrich, . Stara Zagora, . Pleven, . Varna (1963) (Bulgaria), . Bratislava (1963) (Slovakia).,
. - Her name is given to a crater on the Moon and the asteroid 1671 Chaika.
. - She was awarded the honorary title of 'great women XX century'.
. - It is named after the street in Vitebsk, Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Klin, Queen, Lipetsk, Mytishchi Novochebokcharske, Odessa, Orenburg, Yaroslavl and other cities.
. - 'Valentina Tereshkova', a documentary film, 1974
. Director - Myrina, Greece Goldovsky.
- 'Space debut Valentina Tereshkova', documentary, 2003. Director - Alexander Lutenko.
She is devoted to a song by English group Komputer 'Valentina' (albums 'The World Of Tomorrow', 1997, 'Valentina', 1998).
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