Born February 25, 1946 in g. Riga, Latvian SSR. Russian.
In 1970 he graduated from the history department of Moscow State University. M. V. University.
. In 1970 - 73 he studied at the graduate Institute for International Economics and International Relations (IMEMO) USSR.
. In 1973 - 82 - Researcher, Senior Researcher IMEMO USSR.
. In 1982 - 92 - Senior Fellow, Institute of Comparative Political and labor movement USSR Academy of Sciences - Academy of Sciences.
. In 1992 - 93 - Expert of the Gorbachev Foundation.
. Since 1992 - Director of the Center for entrepreneurial studies "expertise".
. Since 1993 - CEO of Foundation Center for Political Technologies.
. Member of "Club-93".
. From 1993 - participant of electoral campaigns in Russia.
. Doctor of Political Science, author of more than 150 scientific publications, including several monographs and articles on the elections in Russia.
. Fluent in English and French.
. Hobbies - chess, table tennis.
. Has a daughter (1976).