Celebrities Feedback Rating Russian

Most popular
Pochepa Oksana (Shark)Pochepa Oksana (Shark)
Volkov Boris IvanovichVolkov Boris Ivanovich
Bernardo Bertolucci (Bernardo Bertolucci)Bernardo Bertolucci (Bernardo Bertolucci)
more persons......
Russia Is Great
Free mp3 download
Count of persons: 23165

All persons

Bulgakov Mikhail Afanasievich

( Writer)

Comments for Bulgakov Mikhail Afanasievich
Biography Bulgakov Mikhail Afanasievich
Born in the family of Professor of the Kiev Theological Academy. Bulgakov's childhood and youth were held in Kyiv. In the writer's work will go down as the City of Kiev (novel "The White Guard") and will be not just a place of action, but the embodiment of the hidden feelings of the family, homeland (essay Kiev City ", 1923). In 1909, Mr.. Bulgakov entered the Medical Faculty of the University of Kiev. By its end in 1916. He received the title "doctor with honors". Kyiv years laid the foundations worldview Bulgakov. Here was born his dream about writing. By the time the First World War Bulgakov has emerged as a personality. After graduation, the summer of 1916, he worked at Red Cross Hospital in south-western front. At the same time he was called up for military service and transferred to the Smolensk province, where he became a doctor first rural hospital, then to September 1917 - Vyazemskaya City Hospital. These years have served as material for the eight-story writer, formed the cycle "Notes of a young physician (1925-1927). Work on them he started there, in the province of Smolensk, regularly recording his impressions of meetings with patients. Events 1917. passed almost unnoticed by the Zemsky doctor Bulgakov. His trip to Moscow in the autumn of that year was due to interest in the events of the revolution, . that tried to the best of intentions attributed to him some of his biographers, . a desire to free themselves from military service and from a personal illness, . quite accurately reproduced in one of the stories mentioned the cycle - "Morphine",
. Back to back with the events of the revolution and civil war, Bulgakov encountered in his native Kiev, where he returned in March 1918. With the constant change of government in the capital of Ukraine 1918 - 1919 he. stay away from political events was not. Bulgakov himself in one of the questionnaires will write about it this way: "In 1919, living in a g. Kiev, has consistently called for service as a doctor all the authorities who occupied the city ". On the crucial importance of his work for one and half year stay in Kiev suggest novel "The White Guard", the play "Days of Turbin," the story "The amazing adventures of Doctor" (1922). After the capture of Kiev General Denikin (August 1919) Bulgakov was mobilized in the White army and sent to the North Caucasus military doctor. It appeared his first publication - a newspaper article entitled "The coming prospects" (1919). It is written from a position of rejection of "the great social revolution" (ironic quotes Bulgakov), which brought people into the abyss of disaster, and presaged the inevitable retribution for her. Bulgakov did not take a revolution because the collapse of the monarchy is largely meant for him the collapse of Russia itself, the home - as the source of all light and dearest in his life. During the social fracture, he made his major and final choice - parted with the medical profession and devoted himself entirely to literary work. In 1920-1921. Working in Vladikavkaz subdivision Arts, directed by writer Yu. L. Sliozkin, Bulgakov wrote a five plays, three of them were put to the local theater scene. These early dramatic experiments made, according to the author, in a hurry, with hunger, they were subsequently destroyed. Texts were not preserved, except for one - "Sons of the mullahs". Here Bulgakov survived, and his first encounter with the "left" critics Proletkult wing attackers of a young author for his commitment to the cultural traditions associated with the names of Pushkin and Chekhov. On these and many other episodes of his life Vladikavkaz period in the writer tell the story "Notes on the cuffs" (1922-1923).
. At the end of the civil war, while still in the Caucasus, Bulgakov was ready to leave home and go abroad
. Instead, the fall of 1921. he appeared in Moscow and has since remained there forever. Perhaps this move he did not without influence on. E. Mandelstam, who met in the last days of his stay in the Caucasus. The initial years in Moscow were very difficult for Bulgakov not only in domestic but also in respect of the creative. To survive, he undertook to do any work: from the Secretary LITO Glavpolitprosveta, which settled with the assistance of H. K. Krupskaya, to ceremonies in a small theater on the outskirts. Eventually he became a chronicler and feuilletonist several well-known Moscow newspaper: "Dial Tone" (here Bulgakov did the famous "fourth page" with In. Kataev AND. Ilf and E. Petrov and. Babel, SW. Olesha), "mouthpiece", "working", "Voices of Educators," Yesterday ", published in Berlin. In the Literary Supplement to the latter, but referred to "Notes on the cuffs, his stories were published" The Adventures of Chichikov, "" Red Crown "," Cup of Life "(all 1922). Among the many early works, written by Bulgakov in "journalistic period, stands out for its artistry story" Khan's Fire "(1924). In his work since then the least perceptible influence of various trends in contemporary literature from A. White to B. Pilnyak, the effects of which have experienced the many young writers, started together with Bulgakov. He was a stranger and were then popular concept of "left" art, formal creative experiments (hence the - satirical barbs in his works at In. Shklovsky, Su. Meyerhold, in. Mayakovsky).
His favorite authors are from the early years were Gogol and Saltykov-Shchedrin. Gogol's motives directly included in the writer's work, from early satirical short story "The Adventures of Chichikov," and ending with the staged "Dead Souls" (1930) and screenplays "The Inspector" (1934). As Shchedrin, that Bulgakov repeatedly and explicitly called him his teacher. The main theme of satirical articles, short stories, novels Bulgakov 1920., Speaking his own words - "endless ugliness of our everyday life". The main target of the satirist were multiple distortions of human nature under the influence of the occurred public break-up ( "Dyavoliada" (1924), "The Fatal Eggs" (1925)). In the same direction moves the author's thought and in a satirical novel "Heart of a Dog" (1925, first published in 1987). All these peculiar "warning signals," served as a writer for some of his contemporaries occasion to the delight of (M. Gorky called "The Fatal Eggs" clever thing, for others - to the outright denial of the publication (L. B. Kamenev on the "Heart of a Dog": "This is a sharp lampoon of modernity, to print in any case not"). In these stories clearly revealed the peculiarity of the literary manner of Bulgakov's satirical. Abroad, separating from Bulgakov's early maturity, was the novel "The White Guard", two parts of which were published and. G. Lezhnyov in the journal "Russia" (1925, completely novel came out in the Soviet Union in 1966). This novel was the favorite thing of the writer. Later, based on the novel and in collaboration with the Moscow Art Theater Bulgakov wrote the play "Days of Turbin (1926), which to some extent is a piece. Her own remarkable destiny, predetermined famous formulation of MAT (premiered in 1926). It was she who brought fame to Bulgakov. Days Turbins "enjoyed unprecedented success with the audience, . but not with critics, . which launched a crushing campaign against "apologetichnogo" in relation to the white movement performance, . hence, . and against the "anti-Soviet mood of the author of the play.,
. Massive attack of criticism resulted in 1929
. to the recovery of the performance of the Moscow Art repertoire (in 1932. it was renewed). Yet the absolute success of the stage, as well as repeated visits to the "Days Turbins" And. Stalin, who have shown a strange and incomprehensible to the theater officials interested in "counterrevolutionary" show, helped him to survive and pass on the MAT scene (with a break of several years) is almost a thousand times at a constant sold out.
. In May 1926, during a search of a Moscow apartment Bulgakov had confiscated the manuscript of the novel "Heart of a Dog" and the diary
. Later his work methodically, year after year, ousted from the literary periodicals and the stage theaters. "The turbines were only Bulgakov's play with such a successful, albeit not an easy stage history. Others of his plays, even if they broke through for a short time on stage (a satirical comedy "Zoykina apartment, set in 1926. theater of. Eug. Vakhtangov; stage pamphlet "Crimson Island" delivered in 1928. Moscow Chamber Theater; drama "Kabala sanctimonious (Moliere)" put the Moscow Art Theater in 1936), subsequently banned. Not been brought before the premiere, . satirical comedy "Running" (1927), the last touch of the writer to the subject of the White movement and emigration, "defensive" play "Adam and Eve" (1931); fantastic comedy "Bliss" (1934) and spin-off from her grotesque play "Ivan Vasilievich" (1935); historical and biographical play "Batum" (1939),
. Drama "Alexander Pushkin (The Last Days)" (1939) appeared on the stage of Theater, only three years after the death of the author. A similar fate was awaiting the theatrical staging of Bulgakov ( "Crazy Jourdain, 1932," War and Peace ", 1932," Don Quixote ", 1938), except for" Dead Souls ", stated Art Theater in 1932. and permanently preserved in its repertoire. None of Bulgakov's plays and drama, including the famous "Days of Turbins" was not published during his lifetime. As a result, his plays 1920-30-ies. (those that were on the scene), while doubtless a theatrical phenomenon, were not at the same time, the phenomenon of literature. Only in 1962. Publishing House "Art" has issued playbook Bulgakov. At the turn of 1920-30-ies. Bulgakov's plays were removed from the repertoire, baiting in the press continued unabated, there was no opportunity to publish. In this situation, the writer was forced to turn to the authorities ( "Letter to the Government", 1930), asking him to either provide him with work and, consequently, their livelihood, or to let abroad. In a letter to the Government referred to a telephone call Stalin, Bulgakov (1930), which is somewhat weakened the tragic experiences of the writer. He got a job as a producer Theater, and thereby solved the problem of physical survival. In 1930-ies. perhaps the most important in the writer's theme is the relationship of the artist and the authorities, . implemented them on the material from different historical periods: Moliere (play "Moliere", . biographical novel "The Life of Monsieur de Moliere", . 1933), . Pushkin (play "The Last Days"), . modern (novel "The Master and Margarita"),
. This was compounded by the fact that even the benevolent-minded to Bulgakov and cultural figures (eg, K. S. Stanislavsky) sometimes showed a lack of understanding of the writer, forcing him unacceptable to his artistic decisions. Starkly revealed this during rehearsal training "Moliere", because of what Bulgakov was forced in 1936. break with the Moscow Art Theater and go to work in the Bolshoi Theater librettist.
. The novel "The Master and Margarita" has brought world-famous writer, but was leaked to the Soviet reader a broad delayed by almost three decades (first published in an abridged form occurred in 1966)
. Bulgakov deliberately wrote his novel as the final product, which has absorbed many of the motives of his previous works, as well as artistic and philosophical experience of Russian classical and world literature.
. His last years Bulgakov lived with a sense of artistic destiny ruined
. And although he continued to work actively to create the libretto "Black Sea" (1937, with composer. Potocki), Minin and Pozharsky (1937, composer B. V. Asafev), "Friendship" (1937-1938, composer. P. Soloviev-Gray, left unfinished), "Rachel" (1939, composer and. O. Dunaevskii) and others, it was more the inexhaustibility of his creative powers, and not the true joy of creation. An attempt to resume cooperation with the Moscow Art Theater, through play "Batum" (about the young Stalin, 1939), established with an active interest in theater to the 60 th anniversary of the leader, ended in failure. The play was banned for staging and interpreted by political top as the writer's desire to mend relations with the authorities. This finally broke down Bulgakov, led to the aggravation of his illness and impending death. He died a writer in Moscow, is buried at Novodevichy Cemetery.

Russian writers of the 20 th century. Bibliographic Dictionary. T2. MA: Education. 1998. S. 226 <br>
Unofficial page Biographies Photos Portfolio Annotations Miscellaneous

User comments
Write comment
Write comment
Links by theme:
Dmitry Bulgakov Gavrilivich
Bulgakov Mikhail Ivanovich
Bulgakov Yakov Ivanovich

Bulgakov Mikhail Afanasievich, photo, biography
Bulgakov Mikhail Afanasievich, photo, biography Bulgakov Mikhail Afanasievich  Writer, photo, biography
RIN.ru - Russian Information Network
Copyright © RIN 2002 - * Feedback