WINE (Wien), William( German physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1911)
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Biography WINE (Wien), William
January 13, 1864, Mr.. - August 30, 1928
German physicist Wilhelm Karl Vin was born in g. Gaffkene, then part of the Eastern Prussia (now z. Primorsk, Russia) was the only son of Charles Wines, a farmer, and Caroline Wing (nee Hertz). When the boy was two years old, his family moved to a smaller farm in Drahenshtayn. Closed, as did his father, the boy had no friends and was especially attached to his mother. As was customary then, he hired a French teacher, which he began to speak before learned to write in German. Officially In. began studying at the age of eleven years in Rastenburgskoy gymnasium.
He was an attentive student, preferring instead homework to roam the fields, and poorly studied, especially in mathematics. His parents took him from school in 1879. and educated at home by teaching the farmers' case, and his schoolwork, he continued with a private teacher. Then in autumn 1880. V. enrolled in school in Kц╤nigsberg and finished it in early spring 1882, Mr.. Later that same spring, encouraged by his mother, he enrolled at the University of Gottingen. Dissatisfied mathematics courses and who did not like the life of student corporations, he left Gц╤ttingen, having studied there for one semester and traveled to Germany's Rhine riparian areas. He returned home, intending to become a farmer, but, realizing that this work is not for him, resumed classes in mathematics and physics at the University of Berlin in autumn 1882
. After two semesters of classroom and three years of laboratory work under the guidance of Hermann von Helmholtz, the eminent physicist, mathematician and physiologist, also spent one summer at the University of Heidelberg, in
. received his doctorate in 1886. His thesis was on the diffraction of light on a sharp metal edge and the impact absorption of the metal on the obtained color. Diffraction - a phenomenon caused by the wave nature of light. If a metal barrier put the screen on the side opposite the light source, then under suitable conditions it arises diffraction pattern.
. This pattern consists of alternating bright and dark stripes, extending below the geometric shadow of the barrier, as if the light skirted the edge of the barrier
. Since the location of bright and dark bands due to the wavelength (corresponding to a specific color) and the diffraction pattern is different for different wavelengths, . then using the diffraction of light can be divided, . containing a mixture of colors, . on colored strips,
. V. found that after diffraction of light is polarized and that the material of which consists of edge, affects the color. He believed that this color can not be explained by existing theories, because they do not take into account the molecular vibrations of the diffraction plate.
In the summer of 1886. V. came home to help their parents on the farm, on which a fire, damaged several buildings. He stayed here over the next four years, continuing self-study theoretical physics. His future is determined, when the drought 1890. forced his parents to sell land. V. became an assistant to Helmholtz in the new State Physical-Technical Institute in Charlottenburg (now part of Berlin), where he meet the challenges posed by industrial firms.
For the 30-year period in. implemented a wide range of scientific research in various academic institutions. In 1892, Mr.. He became a lecturer at Berlin University, in 1896. was appointed professor of physics at the Technical University in Aachen, succeeding Philipp von Lenard. In 1899. He was professor of physics at the University of Hesse, and then, in 1900, became the successor of Wilhelm Roentgen's post of professor of physics at the University of Wц╪rzburg.
Research In. cover a range of issues, including, in particular, hydrodynamics, especially the behavior of sea waves and cyclones. Even in the State Physical-Technical Institute, he began his fruitful research on thermal radiation, ie. phone radiation caused by their heating. At different temperatures, the body absorb, reflect or transmit radiation incident on them. But regardless of that, they radiate energy because they possess a certain temperature. Familiar example is the thread of the light bulb.
In 1860-ies. Gustav Kirchhoff, a theoretical study of the relationship between emission and absorption of energy, introduced the concept of a black body which absorbs all radiation incident on it, did not reflect. Real body, black as coal - this superb, though not absolutely perfect absorber of radiation - does reflect a small fraction of light falling on it. It looks black because it reflects very little light. Absolutely black body - a perfect absorber, . and Kirchhoff showed, . it, . besides, . and the best possible emitter and therefore may serve as a model for finding the link between radiation intensity and temperature of the body - regardless of the material, . of which made specific radiator.,
. Although normal body can not be absolutely black body, . Kirchhoff showed, . substantiate the theoretical, . the space, . completely surrounded by walls at uniform temperature (eg, . furnace), . possesses the necessary properties of a black body - regardless of the wall material,
. Make sure this is possible, if you try to understand what happens when we do the small hole in one of the walls. The radiation released to the hole to reach the opposite wall and partly absorbed and partly reflected. It is unlikely that the reflected part came back to our little hole. Instead, she will perform a series of reflections and acquisitions so far, until completely absorbed (slightly heated with a wall), and never come out. In other words, our piece of the space bounded by walls, completely absorb the radiation hit him, as is posited absolutely black body. Kirchhoff showed that the radiation inside a cavity, composed of intersecting beams that bounce off the walls, has a distribution of wavelengths and intensities that depend only on temperature, but not from the material of the walls.
In 1893, Mr.. V. studied the blackbody radiation, using what he called 'mental' (as opposed to laboratory) experiment, relying on the laws of thermodynamics. Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann thermodynamics is used similarly to justify a mathematical formula, empirically found his compatriot Josef Stefan. Stephen noticed that the total energy emitted every second by a black body and includes all wavelengths is proportional to the fourth power of absolute temperature (-273 б╟ C) body. V. developed this theoretical study, counting how temperature changes affect the energy emitted at a given wavelength, or color (actually a narrow range of wavelengths centered at a given value).
. From the experiments it was known that a heated body emits radiation in a certain area, or range of frequencies (wavelengths), but not uniformly
. Schedule of radiated energy as a function of wavelength is a curve, . beginning with low values at long wavelengths, . gradually rises to a rounded peak, . representing the maximum intensity at some intermediate wavelength, . and then again falls to low values of energy at shorter wavelengths,
. V. found that this curve moves to the region of shorter or longer wavelengths as the temperature of, respectively, increases or decreases, a simple relationship, now known as Wien's displacement law. The wavelength corresponding to the peak of the radiation multiplied by the absolute temperature remains a constant value. Because the shape of the curve representing the dependence of the radiated energy on temperature, essentially unchanged, then knowing the curve at one temperature, one can construct a similar curve, and at any temperature, using the law of Wine.
. Change the wavelength visible to the electric heating element with increasing temperature
. When the element becomes sufficiently hot, it glows a dull red glow (wavelength). When the temperature rises, it changes the glow of a bright red, then orange, then yellow and finally white, because the wavelength becomes shorter and shorter. White color - a mixture of many wavelengths. Here there are short waves in accordance with the law Wines (wavelengths with increasing temperature are shorter) and all the waves, . including less long, . which have sufficient energy, . to be present in the visible component in accordance with the Stefan - Boltzmann Law (total radiated energy increases with temperature).,
. In 1896, Mr.
. V. progressed further in their theoretical calculations, explaining the shape of the curve of energy distribution by the laws of thermodynamics and electromagnetic theory, developed by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell. This explanation has become known as the law of radiation Wines.
Wien's displacement law was experimentally confirmed by measuring the radiation emitted by a small hole in the cavity of the blackbody. The study was conducted by Otto Lummer and Ernst Pringshaymom in 1899. using a sensitive instrument, called a bolometer. However, as regards the law of radiation, it was discovered that he was very good agreement with experiments only in the short waves and strongly deviates from them for long waves. English physicist, Joule. U. Stratton (Lord Rayleigh) derived an equation that works well for long, but bad for the short waves. It is an attempt to reconcile theory with experiment at the whole spectrum of waves led Max Planck to the creation of his revolutionary quantum theory. According to V., Planck solved the problem 'by introducing the famous conjecture about the elements of energy (quanta), under which the energy is not infinitely divisible, but may be distributed only to a fairly large quantities, which can not be split up further. "
. also engage in other studies, primarily electrical discharges in gases at very low pressure in vacuum tubes. In these discharges appeared three types of radiation, the time seemed puzzling. One type, called cathode rays, moving from the cathode (negative electrode) to anode (positive electrode). The second type, called the channel beams, moving in the opposite direction. The third type, which opened in 1895. Wilhelm Roentgen and called X-rays occurs in the anode, where he beat the cathode rays. Cathode rays, later called electrons, were discovered English physicist Dzh.Dzh. Thomson in 1897. V. confirmed that the cathode rays - a particle carrying a negative charge. He also showed, . that channel beams - positively charged atoms (ions) of residual gases in discharge tubes, . and gave the first assessment of wavelengths for X-rays (much shorter than visible light), . measuring the ratio of their energy to the energy generators of the cathode rays,
. His further work has also made significant contributions in radiation physics, one can mention the refined calculations of the wavelength of X-rays and a proposal to use for measuring crystals for five years before, . as Max von Laue has done similar work.,
. was awarded in 1911. Nobel Prize 'for his discoveries in the laws governing heat radiation'. In his Nobel lecture, he spoke about the importance of what he called 'mental' experiments. 'In the applications of thermodynamics to the theory of radiation is useful to apply the common processes that have proved so fruitful in other ways, - he said. - I mean the thought experiments, which often can not be realized in practice, but nevertheless lead to reliable results ... Of these thought experiments we can draw an important conclusion: we can determine how the spectral composition of the blackbody radiation varies with the temperature '.
During his visit to the U.S. in 1913. V. lectured at Columbia University and attended both Harvard and Yale. In 1920, Mr.. he again became the successor of Roentgen, this time as a professor of Physics, University of Munich, where he led the creation of the physical institute. In 1925 ... 1926. He was rector of the university.
In 1898, Mr.. V. married Louise Mehler, whom he met in Aachen, they had two sons and two daughters. V. loved in his spare time to study history, literature and art. He died in Munich in 1928. 'Probably, there are very few physicists who, like Willie Win, equally knowledgeable as well as in the experimental and the theoretical aspects of their practice' - wrote of his colleague Max Planck.
Since 1906. Win up to his death was co-editor (together with the Max Planck) magazine Annalena der physicist '( "Annalen der Physik"). He was a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the scientific academies of Berlin, Goettingen, Vienna and Stockholm.