Gц?BOR (Gabor), Dennis( Hungarian-English physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1971)
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Biography Gц?BOR (Gabor), Dennis
June 5, 1900, Mr.. - February 9, 1979
Hungarian-British physicist Dennis (Denes) Gabor was born in Budapest and was the eldest of three sons, Adrienne (Kalman) and Bertalan Gabor. His mother was an actress before her marriage, and her father, the grandson of a Jewish immigrant from Russia, eventually became the director of 'Hungarian General Coal Company', the largest industrial enterprise in Hungary. Parents T. paid great attention to education of children and created a home atmosphere of admiration for the intellectual achievements. After graduating from the local school, Mr.. enrolled in secondary public schools Miklos Toldo, where he studied languages, mathematics and natural sciences. Already in those years, he has shown great ability in physics. Together with his brother GyцІrgy G. repeated in the home laboratory experiments, which read in scientific books and journals.
G. was called up for military service in 1918. and a few months before the end of the First World War, is aimed at the officers' courses, preparing the artillery and cavalry. Autumn 1918. He was assigned to the Italian front. From Italy, Mr.. was transferred to Hungary in November 1918, after the war ended, demobilized.
On his return Mr.. enrolled in the Budapest Technical University, where he chose a mechanical engineer with a four-year course, because to get a job in Hungary graduate physics at that time was virtually impossible. When G. studied in the third year, he again called up. As an opponent of the monarchy, restored in Hungary in 1920, Mr.. evaded the draft and moved to Berlin to complete their education at Technical University of Berlin, where he graduated in 1924. with an engineering degree. During these years he frequently visited the University of Berlin, where he was to attend the lectures of eminent scientists as Max Planck, Walther Nernst, Max von Laue, and also attend a workshop of Albert Einstein.
After receiving in 1927. doctoral degree in Electrical D. worked in the physics laboratory of the company 'Siemens and Halske' in Siemensstadt. Among the works carried out there was the invention of the quartz mercury lamp. Shortly after Hitler came to power in 1933, after the expiration of the contract with 'Siemens and Halske' G. returned to Hungary. Working as a freelance employee of the Laboratory of the Research Institute of electron tubes Tungsrama, he created a new type of fluorescent lamp, which he called plasma. Not being able to sell the patent for his invention in Hungary, Mr.. decided to emigrate to England. There, he managed to find a place in the 'British Thomson-Houston' (BTH), in which he worked from 1934 to 1948. In 1946, Mr.. G. granted British citizenship.
In BTH T. tried to improve their plasma lamp, but two years later the project was abandoned due to insurmountable technical difficulties. From 1937 to 1948. he worked mainly electron optics - a branch of physics that studies ways to control electron beams and their focusing. During the Second World War the work Mr.. e-optics have been suspended. The fact is that in those years, Mr.. was not a British citizen and, therefore, the authorities imposed a ban on its direct involvement in military programs. Was rejected and his attempt to join the army, although he was later listed as foreigners who enjoy special rights. In this capacity, Mr.. could continue their studies, but did not have clearance to classified information. That is why during the war years he worked in a small house outside the strictly protected area BTH. Not knowing about the works to build the radar, G. created a system which, in his conception, was to detect aircraft in the warmth of their motors.
The war made changes in the personal life of Mr.. In December, 1938. to visit him came his brother Andre, and Mr.. persuaded him to stay in Britain permanently. He strongly invited to her parents, but they returned to Hungary shortly before the invasion of Poland by Hitler. Father G. died in 1942, and his mother survived the war and in 1946. moved in with him.
Shortly before the end of the war Mr.. again turned to research on electron optics and began work, which eventually led him to create holography. Initially, he set out to improve the electronic lens - a device, focusing electron beams as well as a glass lens light rays. This lens was used mainly in the electron microscope, invented in 1933. Ernst Rusco. It can get very large image with the help sent by the object beam of electrons and the subsequent focusing of the reflected electrons on a specially treated screen. According to quantum mechanics, electrons, like light, have wave properties. Because the wavelengths of the fast electrons is less than the length of light waves, the electron microscope can resolve much finer details than the optical. In 30-ies. resolution of electron microscopes limited drawbacks of electron lenses. Above certain levels increase lenses distort the image, resulting in the loss of information.
G. interested in the question, . Can I take a bad electronic image, . containing all the information, . and correct its optical sredstvamiN other words, . He decided to use light, . to increase and 'read' the image, . obtained using electron beams,
. In 1947, Mr.. G. developed the theory underlying this method, and in 1948. coined the term hologram (from the Greek voice - full and gram - recorded). G. demonstrated the potential of its approach, not using electron beams, and light rays. And today holography is used mainly as an optical, rather than the electron-optical method.
. Using the property of waves, known as the 'phase difference', a hologram records the information that is not in the usual photos, - the distance from each part of the objective space to the film
. It is believed that two intersecting waves propagating through space, are in phase at some point in space, if at this point, the peak of one wave coincides with the peak of another, and depression - with depression. In these points the two waves generate a new wave with an amplitude exceeding the amplitude of each of the two primary waves. In other points in space the peaks of one wave may coincide with the troughs of another, in this case the waves extinguish each other (are in antiphase). If the two waves propagate from the light source to the emulsion in various ways, then will be whether they are reaching the film in the phase depends on the difference of the distances traversed by them.
. To obtain a hologram of an object, the beam is split into two
. One of the 'child' beams, called the reference, goes straight to the film, the other before you get to it, is reflected from the object. Since the two beams, . before they meet in one and the same point of the film, . travel different distances, . they create an interference pattern: a pattern of dark and bright spots, . to match points on the film, . in which the incoming waves are in opposite phase or,
. The interference pattern has no resemblance to the subject, but if it is passed through a beam of light which is identical to the reference as it is split into two - exactly the same, which initially fell on the film. Looking at these bundles, the observer sees a three-dimensional image of the object.
The holographic effect is especially pronounced when all the light waves in the original unsplit beam is in phase. Such light is called coherent, can be obtained only by using laser. That is why the discovery of G. was not appreciated before the invention of the laser in 1960. Holography is used in various fields, including medicine, cartography, diagnosis of failures in high-speed equipment, and more recently used for storing and processing information in computers.
In 1949, Mr.. G. BTH left and became an associate professor of electronics at Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London. In 1958, Mr.. He became a professor of Applied Electronics. In 1967. G. retired and worked as a consultant in the laboratories of the C-PBS at Stamford (Conn.), retaining the office to the privileges of the Imperial College.
In 1971, Mr.. G. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his invention and development of the holographic method '
In his Nobel lecture, he touched on the topic, which first attracted his attention during the war - the role of science and technology in society. 'We went ahead on the day of creation, as compared with the basic technology created by [Alfred Nobel] and his contemporaries - said Mr.. - The social impact of new technologies is enormous ... Many of us suspect, . that human nature is perfectly suited to, . to lead us out of the jungle and caves on the modern high phase of industrial industrialization, . but not to, . that for a long time to remain undisturbed at this altitude. ",
. Upon his retirement, Mr.
. many traveled to give lectures, he continued his research (including work to create a projector for three-dimensional movies), writing articles. While in 1974. he suffered a stroke, deprived of his ability to read and write, Mr.. continued to maintain contacts with their colleagues and to monitor their work. When in 1977. New York opened a museum of holography, D. was his first visitor.
In 1936, Mr.. G. married Marjorie Butler, his collaborator in the BTH. He died Feb. 9, 1979, Mr.. in one of London's private clinics.
G. was a member of the Royal Society of London, an honorary member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the CBE. He was awarded the Medal of Thomas Young Physical Society of London (1967), . Rumford Medal of the Royal Society of London (1968), . Albert Michelson Medal Franklinovskogo Institute (1968), . Medal of Honor of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (1970) and the premium Holveka French Physical Society (1971),
. G. was awarded honorary degrees Sauthemptonskogo University, Delft University of Technology, University of Surrey County, New York, Columbia and University of London.