PRIGOGINE Ilya Romanovich( Belgian chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1977)
Comments for PRIGOGINE Ilya Romanovich
Biography PRIGOGINE Ilya Romanovich
genus. January 25, 1917
The Belgian chemist Ilya Prigogine was born in Moscow on the eve of the Russian Revolution. His parents - an engineer-chemist Roman Prigogine and musician Julia (Vishman) Prigogine - was another son. Thanks to the mother Ilya childhood playing the piano. Sheet music, as she later recalled, P. learned to read before the word. In 1921, Mr.. Prigozhin family emigrated from Russia. At first they lived in Lithuania and Germany, and from 1929. settled in Belgium. Years crossings, according to the AP, have given him 'an acute sensitivity to change': 'Having started studying physics and chemistry, I was struck by the fact that the time factor has disappeared'. P. interested in history and philosophy. The future is my profession, he was communicating with a concert pianist.
Primary and secondary education P. received in schools in Berlin and Brussels, and then studied chemistry at the Free University in Brussels, where he was particularly attracted to thermodynamics - the science related to the heat and other forms of energy. Being here in 1943. BSc, P. wrote a dissertation on the importance of time and transformation in thermodynamic systems, for which two years later was awarded a doctoral degree. In 1947, Mr.. He was appointed professor of physical chemistry at the Free University, and in 1962 became director of Solveevskogo International Institute of Physics and Chemistry in Brussels.
. The principles of thermodynamics were formulated in the middle of the XIX century., After the invention of the steam engine, when the interaction of thermal, electrical and mechanical work has attracted considerable interest
. According to one version of the first law of thermodynamics, which is the principle of conservation of energy in any closed system, energy can not disappear and does not occur, and passes from one form to another. The second law of thermodynamics (the principle of entropy) describes the tendency of systems to move from state to state more lower order. Entropy - a measure of disorderliness, or disorder, the system. More disordering, the greater the entropy. In XIX. American mathematician and physicist J. Willard Gibbs developed the theory of statistical thermodynamics for reversible systems in the condition of equilibrium. Thц╘ophile de Donder, Professor P. at the Free University and the founder of the Brussels school of thermodynamics, formulated the theory of irreversible non-equilibrium systems.
. An example of a reversible equilibrium may serve as a melting piece of ice at a temperature which is only slightly above the freezing point of water
. The entropy of this piece of ice is increased to the extent that, as ice crystals on its surface melting, turning into water. At the same time the entropy of the water film on the surface of ice is lowered, because the heat from it is taken on the melting of ice. This process can be reversible, lowering the temperature of the system to the freezing point of water: surface water to crystallize, and the entropy of the ice falls, and the entropy of the water film increases. In each process (melting and freezing) at the freezing temperature of water or close to the total entropy of the system remains unchanged. An example of an irreversible non-equilibrium system can serve as a melting ice cube in a glass of water at room temperature. Entropy of ice cubes is increased until yet to melt all the crystals. As the heat is absorbed first from the total volume of water in the glass, and then from the surrounding air, the entropy of the system increases.
P. most interested in specific non-equilibrium thermodynamics of open systems in which either the mother or energy or both are exchanged with the environment in the reactions. The amount of matter and energy or the amount of matter or the amount of energy over time, increases or decreases. To explain the behavior of systems far from equilibrium, P. formulated the theory of dissipative structures. Assuming, . that nonequilibrium may be a source of organization and order, . He introduced the dissipative structures in terms of a mathematical model of time-dependent nonlinear functions, . which describe the ability of systems to exchange of matter and energy with the environment and spontaneously themselves restabilizirovat,
. By the now-classic example of dissipative structures in physical chemistry known as the instability Benarda. This structure occurs when the layers of flammable liquid medium heated from below. At sufficiently high temperature gradients, heat is transferred through this medium, as usual, and a large number of molecules in a liquid form specific geometric shapes that resemble living cells.
. It soon became apparent that human society as well as biological environment, is an example of dissipative and nondissipative structures
. In 1952, Mr.. English mathematician Alan M. Turing first proposed that the thermodynamic instability, such as those which have been nominated P. and his colleagues, are characteristic of self-organizing systems. In the 60-and 70-ies. P. developed he created the theory of dissipative structures, and described the formation and development of embryos. Critical points of bifurcation in its mathematical models relate to the point at which the biological system in chaos becomes a consistent and stabilized. P. suggested, . that his theories and mathematical models of systems, . which depend on time, . can be applied to the evolutionary and social schemes, . characteristics of vehicular transport and policies regarding the use of natural resources, . as well as to areas, . population growth, . meteorology and astronomy.,
. In 1967
. P. was appointed director of the Center of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics of Ilya Prigogine, which he founded at the University of Texas at Austin. Since then he has worked both in Brussels and in Austin.
In 1977. P. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 'for his work on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, especially for the theory of dissipative structures'. 'Studies P. in the thermodynamics of irreversible processes radically transformed and revived this science ', - said Stig Klasson in his opening speech on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. This work has opened to the thermodynamics of 'new connection and set up the theory, eliminating gaps between the chemical, biological and social fields of scientific research ... Research II. distinguished as the elegance and clarity, so the scientist deservedly called 'the poet of thermodynamics'.
In 1961. P. married Marina Prokopovich. In the couple's two sons. P. known among his colleagues as an amiable man and an outstanding scholar, whose interests range is extremely wide. He was fascinated by literature and archeology, is still playing the piano, loves to listen to music.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, P. awarded a gold medal Svante Arrhenius Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (1969), . Medal Baurka British Chemical Society (1972), . Medal Koteniusa Germanskoy Academy of Natural Scientists 'Leopoldina' (1975) and the Rumford Medal of the Royal Society of London (1976),
. Scientist - a member of the Belgian Royal Academy of Sciences, the New York Academy of Sciences, the Romanian Academy of Sciences, the Royal Society in Uppsala and the Helgoland Academy of Natural Scientists 'Leopoldina'. He is a foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Polish and American chemical companies and other organizations. P. awarded honorary degrees from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Poitiers, Chicago, Bordeaux, Uppsala, Liege, Aix-en-Provence, Georgetown, Krakow and Rio de Janeiro.