Ramzan (Ramsay), William( Scottish chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1904)
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Biography Ramzan (Ramsay), William
October 2, 1852, Mr.. - July 23, 1916
Scottish chemist William Ramsay (Ramsey) was born in Glasgow. His parents were an engineer and businessman William Ramsay and Catherine (Robertson) Ramsay, daughter of Edinburgh physician who wrote a textbook chemistry. The only child in the family, P. received strict Puritan upbringing. In 1866, after graduating from the Glasgow Academy (academy in Scotland, called the high school. - Ed.), He enrolled in the same city to the university, where he studied Latin and Greek language, logic and mathematics, listened to the general course of literature.
P. going to become a priest, but a final year student carried away by the natural sciences. He began to study anatomy and geology, attended lectures by the Scottish chemist John Ferguson and the famous British physicist William Thomson, worked as a laboratory assistant in a local chemical laboratory. Entering in 1871. University of Tц╪bingen, P. worked for the German organic chemist, Rudolf Fittiga. in 1872. He defended his doctoral dissertation, which was called 'Research and toluene nitrotoluolovoy acids' ( "Investigations on the Toluic and Nitrotoluic Acids").
Back in the same year in Edinburgh, P. was adopted for the post of assistant at Anderson College, and in 1874,. appointed assistant-curator at the Ferguson at the University of Glasgow. All these years, P. showed an interest in physical chemistry. In 1880, Mr.. he got the position of professor of chemistry at University College in Bristol, where he began studying the vapor pressure and the critical state of fluids.
Following the appointment of the head of the department of general chemistry in the College in 1887, Mr.. R. Grechischev study of evaporation and dissociation of vapors and liquids. Confirming the linear dependence of surface tension and temperature in liquids, he began to study the anomaly, which at one time drew the attention of the English physicist J. U. Stratton (Lord Rayleigh). This anomaly lies in the fact that atmospheric nitrogen is somewhat higher density than that obtained by artificially. Following the Rayleigh R. suggested that this difference may be explained by the presence of an unknown gas in air. He was able to confirm the hypothesis of Rayleigh. R. removed from the sampled air oxygen, as well as all of the nitrogen, passing the remaining gas several times through the heated magnesium. As a result of this experiment, conducted in 1894, was opened by the existence of an unknown until the time of gas. Since this gas does not enter into chemical reactions with any other element, P. called it argon (from the Greek 'inert').
Learning that the American geologist William Hillebrand obtained by heating certain minerals gas, which is expected to consider in nitrogen, P. early 1895. undertook to determine whether contained in this gas argon. Such a discovery would mean that argon is part of the earth's crust. Spectral analysis confirmed the presence of helium gas and traces of argon. Despite the fact that astronomers Pierre Zhansen and Joseph Lockyer established the existence of helium in the spectrum of the sun over 30 years earlier, the gas is nowhere else could find.
After further experiments, P. proved that helium, like argon, is an inert gas. Having carefully studied the periodic table of chemical elements Dmitry Mendeleyev, P. and Raleigh came to the conclusion that argon and helium are the two representatives of the family is not yet open elements. It seemed obvious that these undiscovered elements must occur naturally in smaller quantities than argon or helium, and, consequently, they will be much harder to detect.
Investigating various minerals and meteorites, P. found no traces of inert gases. However, in 1898, working with Maurice Travers, he used a completely different analytical approach. In order to establish a substance belonging to the unknown liquids, usually slowly increased the temperature of these liquids, noting the exact boiling point of each substance. Using the method, which is allowed to cool and a large number of liquefied argon, P. identified two inert gas, and called them krypton and neon (from the Greek words meaning respectively, 'hidden' and 'new').
As a result of further work, he opened another inert gas, xenon, which is called (from the Greek 'unknown'). Thus, the number of inert gases has increased to five. During the next two years, he confirmed that these five gases actually possess those qualities, which come to expect from this new class of elements. So in the periodic table has been added a new group of elements.
In 1904. R. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "in recognition of opening them in an atmosphere of various inert gases and determine their place in the periodic table '. At the same time, Raleigh was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the concentration of gases and the role he played in the discovery of argon. Introducing P. on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, I.E. Tsederblom stressed the immense importance of his achievements: 'The opening of an entirely new group of elements, none of which can not be accurately known before - this is quite a unique phenomenon in the history of chemistry'. Job P. was crucial not only for the establishment in 1913, Mr.. Niels Bohr theory of atomic structure. Opening P. allowed to replace the flammable helium, hydrogen, which is then used for filling balloons, balloons and zeppelins, inert, and therefore, more secure gas.
Soon after the discovery of inert gases R. drew attention to the gas, then called 'emanation' (emission. - Ed.), Which Ernest Rutherford and F.E. Dorn associated with radioactive elements thorium and radium. Rutherford's work, conducted in 1902, persuaded P. that the emanation of a noble gas, which apparently should belong to the argon group. In 1903, working with Frederick Soddy, P. observed helium lines in the spectrum of radium bromide. Seven years later, P. and Vitlou-Gray experimentally proved that the main component of this emanation is less dense than the radium - at the four atomic units, ie. on the exact weight of a helium nucleus. These findings supplement the periodic table of another inert gas - radon, thus confirming the hypothesis of Rutherford that the radiation associated with the transformation of one element to another.
In 1881, Mr.. R. married Margaret Buchanan. They had two children. In addition to conducting scientific research, R. paid much attention to education reform. Desire to increase the level of teaching have seen all 25 years of his work at University College. Following the resignation in 1912. P., which students and colleagues considered a tireless and an incorrigible optimist, he continued to work at home, in Hetslmiere. In 1914, after Britain declared war on Germany, P. offered their services, but his health has been undermined. July 23, 1916, Mr.. R. died of cancer in Hetslmiere.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, P. was awarded the Davy medal of the Royal Society of London (1895), medals, August Wilhelm von Hoffmann Germanskogo Chemical Society (1903) and other awards, as well as noted by many honorary degrees in 1902. scientist was granted a peerage.