Jerne (Jerne), Niels K.( English immunologist Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1984)
Comments for Jerne (Jerne), Niels K.
Biography Jerne (Jerne), Niels K.
genus. December 23, 1911
English immunologist Niels Kaj Jerne was born in London, the son of Elsa Maria Jerne (Lindberg) and Hans Jessen Jerne, place of birth and origin, it is both a British citizen and a citizen of Denmark. At the beginning of the First World War, the family E. moved to Holland. Here in Rotterdam, in 1928. the age of 17 E. received a bachelor's degree.
In 1943, Mr.. E. worked as a research fellow at the Danish State Serum Institute. Then, within two years he studied physics at Leiden University and then moved to the University of Copenhagen. Here he wrote a dissertation on the activity and affinity of antibodies and in 1951. received a medical degree.
Then E. continued to work as a researcher at the Danish State Serum Institute. The main scientific theme of the institute was to study the antibodies and other mechanisms of the immune system. At the end of XIX century. Emil von Behring discovered that the serum contains antibodies - proteins that interact with foreign bodies, or antigens. In general, the antibodies interact only with specific antigens, in other words, the reaction of antigen - antibody specific. When the body of an animal first enters 'unknown' antigen, produced a large number of antibodies. E. found that if contact organism with antigen continues, it begins to produce new antibodies to the antigen forming a stronger bond.
In his early works E. found that the antibodies - is not just proteins that interact with antigens, and the active components of the immune system. He emphasized that the essence of immune responses is not in the body in the formation of specific antibodies against previously unknown antigens, and in regulating body formation of a series of specific antibodies.
. The question of the specificity of the antibodies arose following an 30-ies
. Research Karl Landsteiner. Landsteiner found that the mice can cause the formation of antibodies specific to tens or even hundreds of different chemicals. Most scientists could not agree with the idea that animals are millions of different pre-formed antibodies, of which, in contact with antigen selects one specific antibody. It seemed more logical that the immune system antigen serves as a matrix for the formation of the antibody.
However, E. not recognize such 'guidance' theories. He believed that the antibodies are selected either from existing or gradually modified. As he wrote later, such ideas 'have color Darwinian'. Antibodies as it has been evolving through natural selection.
Before 1954. E. continued to work on the affinity of antibodies and antigens in the Danish State Serum Institute. He then worked for a research fellow at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, along with Max Delbrц╪ck. While working in the U.S. E. formulated the theory of selection antibody. He suggested that the blood always contains a large number of different antibodies and, when an antibody encounters its corresponding antigen, forms a compound, which recognizes lymphoid cells. As a result, these cells synthesize copies bound antibodies. In 1957. Macfarlane Burnet developed the theory of EM, suggesting that each antibody-producing cell can produce only one type of antibodies specific for one antigen. When clones of such cells are found with 'their' antigen, they are activated and begin to produce antibodies in large quantities.
. Clonally-selection theory of Burnet (above which worked with researchers from the University of California, Joshua Lederberg and David Talmeydzh) was leading in immunology in the 50-ies
. In the formation of the concept E. played a major role theorist: he has identified the possible consequences of different assumptions and to develop clear, common language, allowing immunologist fruitfully interact.
In 1956 ... 1962. E. little interest in research work. During this period he headed the departments of Biological Standards and immunology at the World Health Organization in Geneva. In addition, from 1960 to 1962. He worked at the Department of Biophysics, University of Geneva, and then moved to the University of Pittsburgh, to head the Department of Microbiology.
In 1966, Mr.. E. went to work at the Goethe University in Frankfurt and headed by the Paul Ehrlich Institute. In Frankfurt pharmaceutical company 'Hoffman - Lyarosh' proposed E. organize a new center of immunological studies in Basel (Switzerland). E. was director of the Basel Institute of Immunology since its inception in 1969. until his retirement in 1980
Despite the administrative duties, E. In the early 60-ies. Jean Jean Dausset, . Baruch Benacerraf and their colleagues found, . that the same cellular proteins, . which cause the activation of the immune system, . resulting in the rejection reaction of transplanted organs, . obviously, . determine the intensity of the immune response to other antigens,
. In 1971, Mr.. E. suggested, . that antibodies produced to recognize the altered histocompatibility antigens, . are neither antagonistic, . no toxic, . and that the selection of appropriate antibodies occurs in the thymus - besprotokovoy gland, . located in the upper anterior mediastinum,
. For the antibody-producing cells in his assumption was wrong, but it correctly reflects the function of T-cells - components of the immune system, which destroy infected and cancerous cells.
The main contribution of E. in immunology was the theory of 'Networks', presented to them in 1974. E. emphasized that the types of antibodies is much more than proteins, and 'in a dynamic state of our immune system is largely closed on itself, producing antibodies to its own antiideotipnye antibodies (ie. antibodies corresponding antigenic profile of its own antibodies) '. E. Although the theory of 'Networks' E. and did not lead to sensational discoveries, she, along with its other concepts formed the theoretical framework in which 'missed' opening of Kohler and Milstein.
Colleagues E. admired him for his love of 'the philosophical problems of immunology', . unusual ability to select from all the data have, . that are relevant to a particular problem, . ability to offer bold, . but a clear hypothesis and the 'desire to insist on being right. ",
. In 1980
. E. retired, leaving the work of the Basel Institute for Immunology, and currently lives in southern France with his wife Ursula Alexandra Jerne (Cole), whom he married in 1964. They have two sons in the family.
E. won many awards and prizes, t.ch. Since 1962