Claude (Claude), Albert( Belgo-American biologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1974)
Comments for Claude (Claude), Albert
Biography Claude (Claude), Albert
August 23, 1899, Mr.. - May 22, 1983
Belgo-American biologist Albert Claude was born in Lonliere, a small village in the Ardennes. His father, Joseph Claude Florentiev was baker. His mother, Marie Claude Glodisin (Vatrikan), died of cancer when Albert was 7 years old. Primary K. received in school, situated in the house, consisting of only one room; later he was engaged in self-education. During the economic depression before the First World War the family - father, sister and two brothers to. - Moved to a factory town Athus, where K. some time working at a metallurgical plant, first as an apprentice and then a draftsman.
When K. was 13 years old, his uncle has developed a stroke, and K. returned Lonlier, in order to help his elderly aunt to care for sick. Here he made friends with the physician uncle, often visited his patient at home. At K. greatly impressed by the experience, common sense and composure of his new friend. During the First World War to. volunteer enrolled in the British intelligence and was noted for his bravery by Winston Churchill, the then defense minister of Great Britain.
After the war, to. wanted to study medicine, but he did not have a document of high school graduation required for university admission. Therefore, in 1921. He passed the entrance exams to the school of mining in Liege. However, this time a decree of the Belgian Government that the war veterans to enter the university without a document of secondary education, and in 1922. K. became a student of Medical School University of Liц¬ge. In 1928, Mr.. He received his doctorate in medicine. Subsequently. recalled his lessons in his student days with a light microscope, when he watches' turning the thumbscrew ... considering the vague outlines of the mysterious cell particles, store, perhaps, the secrets of the mechanisms of vital activity of cells'. Attempt. distinguish cytoplasmic granules that were visible under the microscope, failed, and he wrote a dissertation on the transplantation of rat tumor cells in mice.
Through this work to. received a government scholarship to study at postgraduate Cancer Institute in Berlin. But soon he had a conflict with the director of the institute, who believed that cancer is caused by the bacterium. K. also claimed that the bacterial suspension, which the director introduced the experimental animals, causing them thus cancer growth, infected tumor cells. After this bold statement to. was forced to leave the institute. However, in 1929,. He still finished his postgraduate studies in the laboratory of Albert Fischer, one of the founders of tissue culture techniques in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute.
In the same year to. The program to. proposed to isolate and identify oncogenic factor Rous sarcoma (tumors of chickens, named after its discoverer scientist Peyton Rous). At that time, considered the hypothesis of viral origin of tumors, and K. wanted to test it on the case. Sent to the Flexner. invitation, and receiving a government scholarship to. summer 1929. arrived in New York. Next 20 years he worked at the Rockefeller Institute.
In order to separate the oncogenic factor from other components of the cell, K. developed a method of cell fractionation - separation of cells into its constituent parts. With this method, use powerful centrifuge - a device in which the components of cells separated by centrifugal force. In earlier experiments, K. tissue with its interesting cells begin to fragment in a simple grinder (hereinafter invented more sophisticated methods), . then the tissue was placed in a centrifuge, . and fragments of cells divided it in accordance with the size and shape, . which made it possible to study them separately.,
. By the mid 30-ies
. By program. was performed. Working in the laboratory of James Murphy, he was able to identify oncogenic factor of tumor cells. Then he introduced this factor to experimental animals and compared the incidence of cancer in these animals and animals of the control group. So he proved that the isolated factor does cause tumor growth. Later K. found that this factor is composed of ribonucleic acid, which, as we know, part of the virus. It was the first evidence linking viruses to the development of tumors.
Once K. identified and tested the factor that causes tumors of chickens, he continued his studies, using the method of cell fractionation to study the components of healthy cells. Through these experiments, K. discovered that he could separate the nucleus (the cell structure, which contains the chromosomes) from the cytoplasm (the rest of the contents of a living cell). Later he made the allocation of specific cytoplasmic structures of cells, including organelle - the special structure of the cells, which play the role of its bodies, and mitochondria - small granulopodobnye or oblong structure. As a result, the opportunity to explore all of these components of cells individually. In 1943, Mr.. K. found that in normal cells also contain particles, including ribonucleic acid. He called them microsomes (currently they are called ribosomes). Subsequently it was proved that in the microsomes or ribosomes, the cellular proteins are synthesized.
In 1945, Mr.. K. published the results of their research on mitochondrial function. With the help of biochemists George Hogebuma and Rollinat Hochkisa he found that it is in the mitochondria is cellular respiration and the formation of energy, ie. processes of oxidative phosphorylation with the release of energy.
In 1941, Mr.. K. In 1942, Mr.. Director of Research 'Interkemikal Corp.' invited him to collaborate with a specialist in microscopy, who worked in the company. Y 'Interkemikal Corporation' was set only in New York on an electron microscope, and K. Previously similar microscopes worked only physicists and metallurgists. In the electron microscope, electrons bombarded the analyzed material. The great advantage of electron microscopy for biology is that it can help it explore the fine details of cellular structures that can not be seen in the light microscope. But it was not known whether the cells withstand the bombardment of electrons.
In the mid 40-ies. K. and Keith Porter received the first electron (photographs obtained with an electron microscope) layers of cultured cells. Porter called it the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently revealed that it is responsible for the transport of fats and proteins in the cytoplasm. Continuing research with an electron microscope, K. Porter, and found a 'new world' of the microscopic anatomy of cells. In 1946, Mr.. K. In 1948, Mr.. K. decided to restore the Belgian nationality. The following year he moved to Brussels and became director of the Institute Jules Bordet. In 1971, Mr.. Here he continued research. In 1972. K. appointed Director laboratory kletochnoi biology and oncology this University.
In 1974. K., George E. George Palade and Christian de Dyuvu was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cells'. In his Nobel lecture to. recalled that 'it is only a little more than a century since we first learned of the existence of cells'. He said, . that the cell - is' an independent and self-sustaining unit of living matter, . grown in the evolution of the ability to reproduce, . accumulate, . transform and use energy, . perform different functions and produce a virtually unlimited number of substances'.,
. In 1935
. K. married Joy Gilder. They have a daughter, Philippa, which later became neuroscientists. The marriage ended in divorce. Colleagues have always respected K., distinguished kindness and common sense, frankness, tolerance, and bright individuality. K. died in Brussels on 22 May 1983, Mr.. In addition to the Nobel Prize, K. was given an award by Louise Gross-Horwitz, Columbia University (1970). He was a member of the French and Belgian medical academies and an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. K. was awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold II, awarded by the Belgian government. He was the holder of honorary degrees, in particular, the Rockefeller and the University of Liц¬ge and the Catholic University of Louvain