Cohen (Cohen), Stanley( American zoologist, biochemist and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1986)
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Biography Cohen (Cohen), Stanley
genus. November 17, 1922
American zoologist, and biochemist Stanley Cohen was born in the Flatbush area of Brooklyn (New York). His parents were Jewish immigrants from Russia - a tailor-Louis Cohen and Cohen, Fanny (Feytel). The family had four children. During the Great Depression of the financial affairs of the family were upset, but the parents still insisted that their children received education. As a child, to. suffered polio, because of which he had all his life remained limp, in addition, he experienced a deep emotional scars. During high school, James Madison K. attracted research. As told to. later, he was already in his youth realized that his 'main driving force was the desire to understand the extent of abilities and talent, the world'.
After graduating from high school to. began to study chemistry and zoology at Brooklyn College. In 1943, Mr.. He received a bachelor's degree. With great success he received a scholarship to study at Oberlin College in Ohio and graduated with honors in 1946. with a master's degree in zoology. He then moved to Ann Arbor and became a professor of biochemistry at the University of Michigan. Here in 1948. He received his doctorate with a thesis devoted to metabolism in the earthworm.
The next four years to. worked as a lecturer, Department of Biochemistry and Pediatrics School of Medicine University of Colorado at Denver, . where, together with an American pediatrician Harry Gordon conducted important research on the exchange of creatinine (nitrogenous substance, . detected in the urine, . muscle tissue and blood) in premature and newborn,
. In 1952, Mr.. K. moved to St. Louis, where for years he worked as an intern for the American Cancer Society at the Department of Radiology, Washington University, and the next six years - an associate professor in the Department of Zoology. In St. Louis, he continued research on the biochemistry of growth processes, and it is here, along with Viktor Hamburger and Rita Levi-Montalcini, he made the first important discoveries in this field.
. By this time it was found, . that the addition to cells, . cultivated in glass bowls (in vitro), . Some extracts from the organs and blood serum (the liquid part of blood, . remaining after removal of the formed elements) may extend the growth of these cells,
. However, factors regulating growth, remained unknown, but study them was extremely difficult. This area was related to one of the greatest mysteries of the living - the question of how the merging of genetic material, eggs and sperm generates billions of cells of the body, turning into different tissues with specific functions. In 1952, Mr.. Levi-Montalcini found that substances contained in some tumors in mice, can cause rapid growth of certain parts of the nervous system in chick embryos. Active factor of these substances has been named factor in the growth of nerve tissue (FRNT). In 1953, Mr.. K. joined a group of researchers from the University of Washington and began the complicated task of purification and identification FRNT. Three years later, he and his colleagues have concentrated extract of mouse tumor growth-promoting. This extract consists of proteins and nucleic acids, was very thick in consistency and with difficulty divided. For the active component to. added to the extract of snake venom contains an enzyme which cleave nucleic acids. To the surprise of AK, it turned out that this poison is more FRNT-like activity than the extract. This discovery stimulated the search FRNT in other tissues, and in 1958. was found high activity of this factor in the salivary glands of adult mice. This gave K. This achievement to. was very important for neurobiological research, t. to. Here, in the laboratory of Charles V. and Gerty T. Corey, Famous biochemists and physiologists - Severo Ochoa, Herman Kalkar, Earl Y. Sutherland and Sydney Kolovik. K. and Kolovik became friends and maintained friendships for life. In 1959, Mr.. together they went to medical school at Vanderbilt University in Nashville (Tennessee), which studied endocrinology (the science of endocrine glands and other tissues, hormones) and the action of hormones. At the University to. continued study of growth factors, working first as an assistant professor of biochemistry, then, from 1962. - Associate Professor and, finally, in 1967, Mr.. - Full professor. In 1976. He was appointed professor of biochemistry, established by the American Cancer Society.
In early studies of effects FRNT TO. found that if the newborn mice were injected with an extract of the salivary glands of adult mice, the eyes were not open at 13 ... 14-th day, as usual, but on the 7 th day. In addition, they have an unusually early in the teeth erupt. K. better than any of his contemporaries, realized that the 'eyes opening in newborn mice may give clues to the mysteries of biological rhythms'. He was aware that 'the nature of time spent so many millions of years to improve the functions of the organism, it would be interesting to see how we can change it formed the program'. The answer to this question was the detection in extracts of the salivary glands of another agent, named K. epidermal growth factor (EGF), t. to. it stimulated the growth of epithelial cells of the skin that lines the internal organs and body surface area, and the cornea. At Vanderbilt University to. developed a simple and elegant method to isolate and purify mouse EGF in relatively large quantities, and in 1972. He and his colleagues have identified as the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide (a chain of 53 amino acids) and three sections in which this chain is locked in the ring. In addition, K. received antibody to EGF. In 1975. He singled out human EGF from urine of pregnant women and found its amino acid sequence. EGF is an important tool for investigating the biochemical signals that regulate cell division and differentiation of cells.
It was found that EGF stimulates the growth of many types of cells and increases the number of biological processes. Using the method of radioactive labels, which allows to monitor the interaction of the EGF receptor with the substance (ie. chemical groups with a special affinity for him), K. with his team was able to reveal the mechanism of connection with the EGF receptor and the penetration of this complex in cell. It turned out that this process involved, among other components, the enzyme system which is universal for the actions of other growth factors, hormones, and oncogenic viruses. This work played a crucial role in the subsequent establishment of other researchers previously unknown growth factors and shed light on the effect of viruses and neoplastic processes.
. Perhaps FRNT be useful therapeutic agents for the restoration of damaged nerve tissue
. Because EGF stimulates the healing of skin wounds and cornea in animals currently under clinical study human EGF. In addition, EGF can be used in skin grafting and treatment of tumors, when changing this factor or its receptors.
In 1986. K. and Levi-Montalcini was awarded the Nobel Prize 'in recognition of the discoveries that are critical to uncover the mechanisms of growth regulation of cells and organs'. During evaluation, it was noted the scrupulous study of K. sequence of molecular processes, stimulated by the interaction of EGF receptors, and discovery of new principles applicable to a wide range of other hormonal interactions with cells.
In 1951, Mr.. K. married Olivia Barbara Larson. They had three children. After the divorce to. in 1981. married Jane Jordan. K. likes classical music, loves to play the clarinet, and enjoys playing tennis. One of his colleagues noted that K. 'belongs to a generation of scientists who do science themselves, and on his hands still calluses'. K. spends much time in the laboratory. Often, thinking about an idea, he walked down the corridor in the old pants with a hardened tube pockets.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, K. won many other awards, t.ch. Prize for scientific achievement Earl Sutherland at Vanderbilt University (1978), . Robertson Memorial Prize of the National Academy of Sciences USA (1981), . Prize for outstanding work in basic medical research Rozenstila Louis Brandeis University (1982), . Prize Louisa Gross Horwitz, Columbia University, . international award Gardner Fund (1985), . National medals 'for scientific achievement' of the National Science Foundation and the award for basic medical research Albert Lasker (1986),
. He is a member of the American Society of Biochemistry, International Institute of Embryology, National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. K. awarded an honorary degree, University of Chicago.